33 terms

Replication, Transcription, Translation

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DNA replication
The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself, occurs in the nucleus of the cell
chromatid
one of two identical halves of a duplicated chromosome
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that determines the genetic information
RNA
ribonucleic acid is produced by copying a segment of a DNA strand into a complementary single-stranded RNA molecule during a process called transcription
transcription
the process by which mRNA is made from a segment of DNA, occurs in the nucleus of the cell
thymine
a nitrogenous base found only in DNA
uracil
a nitrogenous base found only in RNA
translation
the process by which a polypeptide chain is made from mRNA, occurs at a ribosome
deoxyribose
5-carbon sugar found in DNA
ribose
5-carbon sugar found in RNA
DNA nucleotide
the basic building block of DNA; composed of a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of 4 nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, guanine)
codon
3 nucleotides in a row that specify an amino acid
gene
a segment of DNA that determines a trait
amino acids
the building block of proteins
codon
3 consecutive nucleotides that determine a single amino acid
mRNA
(messenger RNA) is made from a segment of a DNA strand and carries the instructions for building a protein
DNA polymerase
The enzyme that brings the nucleotides to construct the new complementary strand of DNA during DNA replication; This enzyme also proofreads the newly made strand to fix errors
RNA polymerase
The enzyme that brings the RNA nucleotides to construct the mRNA transcript during transcription
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA--> mRNA--> protein--> traits
Complementary DNA base-pairs
A-T, C-G
Complementary RNA base-pairs
A-U, C-G
What is the complementary DNA strand to: ATTCGC
TAAGCG

(A-T, C-G)
What is the complementary RNA strand to: TTAACGC
AAUUGCG

(A-U, C-G)
What amino acid is specified by the RNA codon AUG?
Methionine
What amino is specified by the DNA codon AAT?
leucine
semi-conservative
each new DNA strand contains one original strand and one new strand therefore it is called semi-conservative
Where does transcription take place in the cell?
the nucleus
Where does replication take place in the cell?
the nucleus
Where does translation occur in the cell?
on ribosomes
anti-codon
3 nucleotide region on tRNA that contains the complementary bases to mRNA
tRNA
(transfer RNA) brings the amino acid to the ribosome
Ribosome
the site of protein synthesis (translation)
Nucleus
the site of replication and transcription

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