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114 terms

Anthropology Midterm

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Anthropology
study of human beings; or study of culture
4 fields of Anthropology
cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic
cultural anthropology
using ethnography and ethnology to study human societies and cultures
archaeological anthropology
reconstructs, describes and interprets past human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains
biological anthropology
Pale anthropology: human evolution via fossil record: genetics, growth and development; primatology
linguistic anthropology
language in social and cultural context across space and time
Culture
Learned traditions and customs, that govern beliefs and behaviors; not biological always acquired ALSO the complex whole that includes all habits, customs, beliefs, knowledge, art, morals, etc. learned by humans as members of a society
Ethnicity
Biology, culture, behavior, basic values, language, and customs shared within a group. Members recognize other members of the group. Not strictly limited to color of skin. Example a person can be WHITE without being CAUCASIAN
Binary oppositions
contrasting pairs, such as male/female, young/old, sun/moon, by which people organize their social and conceptual worlds. This idea is associated with the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss.
Gender
cultural meanings, values, and social roles assigned with respect to sex differences NOT BIOLOGICAL
Socialization
the process of transmitting appropriate cultural values and social behavior from one generation to the next
Society
groups living and sharing culture
Class, caste
a category of people who have approximately the same access to power and resources
Worldview
the culturally shaped way one sees and interprets the world. Not biological assumptions about nature moral options and life options. People never venture beyond their perception of the "Real world"
Applied anthropology
to identify, assess and solve contemporary social problems. Examples: Medical Anthropology, Cultural Resource Management (CRM), Forensic Anthropology, and Non-government Organizations (NGO's)
Cross
cultural- Phenomena or mode of comparison not limited to a particular culture or group
Cultural relativism
principle assuming that human customs and life ways are meaningful and coherent in their native social context
Emic
"Insider"
Etic
"Outsider"
Ethnocentrism
the belief that all aspects of European culture represent the best forms of culture
Ethnography
requires fieldwork to collect data, descriptive, group/community
Ethnology
draws upon data collected by a series of researchers, synthetic, comparative, cross-culture
Holistic
human biology, culture, and language
Science
a framework for systematically acquiring information about the physical world and testing that information through controlled observations
History
the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings
Participant observation
the preferred anthropological method it involves living as a member of the society under study and sharing in day-to-day activities usually for an extended period of time.
Affine
individuals related through marriage
Consanguine
individuals related through biological ties
Endogamy
a marriage practice according to which people are expected to take mates from within the group
Exogamy
a marriage practice according to which people are expected to take mates from outside the group
Evolution
the process of development or growth in a group; technically the change in allele frequency in a population from one generation to the next
Functionalism
associated with Bronislaw Malinowski, an anthropological approach the emphasizes the synchronic and holistic approaches
Infanticide
the practice of killing infants, female infanticide is the practice of killing female infants usually for purposes of population control or as a result of economic factors
Lineage
a kin group whose members trace descent matrilineally or patrinilinealy from a common ancestor through known links
Monogamy
a system of marriage involving one man and one wife
Social Darwinism
Application of the theory of natural selection to social organization, involving a misinterpretation of Darwin's biological theory of evolution
Big Man
in Melanesia a man who aims to increase his status by redistributing pigs and other goods at a feast or giveaway
Diachronic
uses the past to analyze the present
Synchronic
emphasizes the present
Band
A type of political organization that is autonomous at the local level; bands are kin-based and egalitarian
Tribe
composed of a number of bands
Chiefdom
a type of political organization that is regional, kin-based and hierarchical
State
a type of political organization that is regionalized, bureaucratic, and hierarchical
General evolution
Associated with Leslie White, a theory of social evolution that argues that cultures evolve through a series of universal stages as a result of increasing use of technology to capture energy
Specific evolution
Associated with Julian Steward, a theory of social evolution that holds the changes in each culture must be studied as adaptations to a specific environment rather than with reference to universal stages
Reciprocity
mutual dependence
Slash and burn agriculture
a cultivation technique in which an area of forest is cut down and then burned allowing the ashes to serve as fertilizer for crop production. Because the soil is only fertile for a few seasons the technique requires that the land be allowed to lie fallow after a few seasons
Pastoralism
People who are dependent mainly on domesticated animals, such as cattle, for subsistence
Capitalism
Economic system characterized by the following: private property ownership exists; individuals and companies are allowed to compete for their own economic gain; and free market forces determine the prices of goods and services. Such a system is based on the premise of separating the state and business activities. Capitalists believe that markets are efficient and should thus function without interference, and the role of the state is to regulate and protect.
Marxism
Associated with Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels, a school of thought that argues that the social organization and ideology of a particular society are determined by its economic base.
Market System
a form of exchange which is concluded in a single transaction at a public place either through barter or transfer of cash
Industrialization
having a economic system heavily dependent on manufacturing
Complex society
a society characterized by a great deal of task specialization and differences in access to power and resources
Cultural ecology
Associated with Julian Steward, an approach to anthropological analysis that focuses on the relationship of a culture to its environment
Egalitarian
Characteristic of a society in which social roles are allocated by gender or age but are otherwise undifferentiated
Hierarchy, status
A form of social organization in which some roles are associated with more power, higher status, and greater access to resources than others
Animism
The belief in a spirit essence that animates people, animals, plants, and some geographical features
Kinship, marriage
A publically recognized social contract that establishes a social contract, sexual rights, social identity of offspring, and an alliance between kin groups.
Bride capture
A marriage custom in which the groom makes a great show and pretense of stealing the bride from her family
Fictive kin
People who and not blood relatives of an individual but occupy the place of biological kin and are referred to by kinship terminology
Kula, potlatch
A redistribution form of exchange characteristic of native people of the northwestern coast of North America in which a lineage head collects art objects and other valuables to be given away to members of another lineage at a ceremonial feast and dance performance
Nuclear family
An economically interdependent unit consisting of a parent or parents and their dependent offspring
Polygamy
A system of marriage where a person of either sex can have more than one mate
Polygyny
A system of marriage where a man can have more than one wife
Polyandry
a system of marriage where a woman can have more than one husband (mostly in East Asia)
Exchange, redistribution
trade
Subsistence
the means by which human groups convert environmental resources to human use
Unilineal
Tracing your descent using only one line either your mother's side or father's
Multilineal
tracing your descent using both parents' lines
Incest taboo
a social rule the prohibits sexual relations with certain categories of relatives
Boas
Anthropologist that went and lived with the Eskimos and learned that culture affects behavior. Culture Realism, historical particularism. Father of American Anthropology
Lewis Morgan
General Evolution. Control of energy is key to evolution= progress. Famous for his statement in 1957 after Russia launched Sputnik
Steward
Specific evolution. Ecological approach. Culture=adaptation
syntax
rules governing way rules combine
phoneme
theoretical represents of sound
descriptivism
the specialization in linguistics that focuses on grammatical structure of language
Conspicuous consumption
taking in more than you need; appearing rich
Materialism
all aspects of culture are means to exploit materials
Political economy
economics of power; the way power is structured
Neolocal
creating a new home with a new family example a new husband and wife move to a new house in a new location seperate from either of their original families
Bourgois
wrote "In Search of Respect" studied crack dealers in Harlem and lived there for three years using participant observation.
Geertz
anthropologists have to put themselves in the picture; interpretive anthropologist
Malinowski
Tribraind Islands; Cricket Video
Lewis-Morgan
General Evolution. Control of energy is key to evolution= progress. Famous for his statement in 1957 after Russia launched Sputnik
Spencer
survival of the fittest theory, social Darwinism
Darwin
evolution theory, The Origin of the Species
White
Generalization: control of energy is the key to cultural progress
Steward
Specific evolution. Ecological approach. Culture=adaptation
Diamond
agriculture was the worst mistake of humans because it increased the likely hood of diseases
Harris
sacred cows in India, starving people were dumb should eat the cows like we do, economic materialist
Marx
social conflict/ conflict between the classes
Prescriptivism
the idea that one variety of language has higher value than others and it should imposed onto the whole of the speech community: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, creation of a standard speech or writing "correctly"
Aztec
human sacrifices
Balinese
Clifford Geertz's famous cockfight scene came from here. Inside glimpse of life
Ilongot
Rage Theory. "Rosaldo" wife died, canibals
Margaret Mead
anthropologist who studied Samoa culture and decided that nurture was above nature in human emotions
culture and personality 'school' of anthropology
discovered by Francis Boas, trained famous anthropologist like Margret Mead and Ruth Benedict. Concentrated on nurture vs. nature, female anthropologist, race, how adolescents see the world, disappearing cultures ect.
language and communication
the ability to transmit encoded thoughts from the mind of one individual to another, usually verbal.
language universals
Substantive, formal and implicational
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language structures the world in particular ways different languages = different social realities
functions of language
emotional expression, social interaction, control of reality, recording the facts, an instrument of thoughts, and expression of identity
place names
may give info about societies, history, beliefs, and values
Language families
languages with clear linguistic evidence of relation
pidgin and Creole
real formal languages languages with grammar that developed when people gathered and didn't have a common language so they created a new language; creative adaptations of other languages.
Radcliffe-Brown
- English anthropologist that pioneered the study of social relations as integrated systems.
Kwakiutl
native american group on the north american pacific coast studied by Francis Boas
Non-stratified
societies exist which have little or no concept of social hierarchy, political or economic status, class, or even permanent leadership.
Kayasa
What is Cricket used for in the trobriand islands?
shorten the bats and balls, made it so as many people who wanted to play could play
What did the trobriand islanders do to inovate the game of Cricket?
culture affects behavior
During his artic fieldwork what does Boas learn about the relationship between culture and behavior?
Harlem
Where does "In Search of Respect" take place?
puerto rican immigrants
Who is the SPECIFIC subject of "In Search of Respect"
changing names and addresses, partially censors it, and constructs a story
What literary liberities are taken by the ethnographer of "In Search of Respect"
children of children
Who are the most vunerable inner city residents in "In Search of Respect"