Leaving Cert Enzymes

Leaving Cert Biology Enzymes
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Terms in this set (...)

metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
reactants
substances that participate in a reaction
products
substances that form as a result of a reaction
ATP
Adenosine Tri Phosphate
common currency of energy that carries energy
that can be used in many types of reactions
more activity=more ATP
ADP
Adenosine Di Phosphate. Binds with a phosphate molecule to form ATP
enzyme
A protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction w/o being affected by the reaction
can speed possible reactions
lower energy of activation
substrates
The reactants in an enzymatic reaction
active site
a small part of the enzyme that binds with the substrate
induced fit model
a model where the enzyme is induced to undergo a slight alteration to achieve optimum fit
factors affecting enzymatic speed
substrate concentration
temperature
pH
enzyme concentration
denature
The state of an enzyme when it has been irreversibly damaged and has changed shape
irreversible
when the enzyme permanently inactivates/destroys and enzyme
poisons can cause this
Catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
Anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
Factors affecting enzymes
enzyme concentration; substrate concentration; temperatures ;pH
Optimum pH
The pH at which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction proceeds at the fastest rate
Optimum Temperature
The temperature at which the enzyme's activity is at its GREATEST.
Buffer
substance that maintains a fairly constant pH in a solution
Hydrogen Peroxide
Substrate used in enzyme experiments
Immobilised
When enzymes are 'fixed' to small resin beads they are said to be ...?
Sodium Alginate
Chemical used to immobilise enzymes
Catalase
enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that decomposes hydrogen peroxide
Amylase
The enzyme that breaks down starch and is found in saliva
Lipase
enzyme that breaks down fat
Pepsin
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach