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Periodic Table of Elements
Chemistry: Grade 10 Review Test
Terms in this set (42)
What is matter made up of?
Anything that has mass and takes up space
The smallest particle of a given type of matter
1. Protons 2. Neutrons 3. Electrons
Atoms consist of what 3 subatomic particles?
They're found in the nucleus of the atom
Have a positive charge and a mass of 1 AMU
The number of protons on the element contains, determines it's atomic number.
What's a proton?
They're found in the nucleus of the atom
Have no charge and has a mass of 1 AMU
What's a neutron?
They're found outside the nucleus in orbits
Have a negative charge and a negative mass
What's a electron?
Whats the outermost shell called?
Whats the electrons in the shell called?
The number of protons - In a neutral atom the number of protons and electrons is equal
What's the Atomic Number?
The mass of the protons, neutrons and electrons.
What's Atomic Mass?
The mass of the protons and neutrons?
What's Mass Number?
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
The rows (left to right) are called periods
What is the row on the periodic table called?
A single column (up to down) is called a family
What is the columns on a periodic table called?
- A family of only one element
- Can behave as a nonmetal and a metal
What's special about Hydrogen?
-First family (left) on the periodic table
-Has one valance shell (outer shell)
-In their natural state they're usually combined with another element
What's the first family on the Periodic Table?
Alkali Earth Metals
-Second family on the periodic table
-Have 2 electrons in their valance shell
-Least reactive than Alkali Metals
What's the second family on the periodic table?
-The sixth family on the periodic table
-Has 6 electrons in their valance shell
-Less reactive than halogens because they need 2 electrons to fill their shell
Whats the sixth family on the periodic table?
-The seventh family
-Have 7 electrons in their valance shell
-Less reactive since they only need 1 electron to fill their shell
-React with hydrogen to form acids (HCL and HF)
What's the seventh family on the periodic table?
-The eighth family
-Non-reactive since the valance shell is full
What's the eight family on the periodic table?
A positive ion = loses electrons
What's a cation?
A negative ion = gains electrons
What's a anion?
A pure substance that can't be broken down into simpler substances. It's made up of one atom
What's an element?
A chemical combination of two or more element joined in a fixed proportion
What's a compound?
A uncharged group of 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond. The smallest particle of a molecule substance
What's a Molecule?
2 or more charged atoms (or groups of atoms) held together by an ionic bond. The smallest particle of a ionic substance
What's a formula unit?
An atom with a positive or negative change by gaining or losing electrons
What's a ion?
A Ionic is a metal and a nonmetal
A Covalent is a nonmetal and a nonmetal
What's the difference between a ionic and covalent?
-Ionic compounds form crystals
-Very hard and very brittle
-Tend to have a high melting point and high boiling point
-Conduct electricity when dissolved in water
What's the properties of an Ionic Compound?
-Usually liquids or gases at room temp.
-Insoluble in water
-Low melting and boiling points
-Cannot conduct electricity
What's the properties of a Covalent Compound?
If each element shares on electron, there is only one pair
What's a single bond?
If each element shares two electrons, there are two pairs
What's a double bond?
If each element shares three electrons, there are three pairs
What's a triple bond?
Two or more elements or compounds = more complex compound
example: A + B = AB
What's a synthesis reaction?
Compound into two or more elements or simpler compound
example: AB = A + B
What's a decomposition reaction?
One element will take place of another element
example: A + BC = B + AC
What's a single displacement reaction?
Compound + Compound.
example: AC + BC = AD + BC
What's a double displacement reaction?
Hyrdocarbons combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water
What's a combustion?
A lot of oxygen
What's a complete combustion?
A poor supply of oxygen
What's a incomplete combustion?
If it's one of these elements HOFBrINCl
When do you know to put a subscript of 2?
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