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Rubenstein Chapter 6, CSHS

The chapter of religion By: Azizur Aziz, Rebecca Swango, Hunter Risher, and Barbara Armentaros
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Religious Culture Hearth
This is where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India too. This is important to human geography because where religions are created, civilizations are too.
Religious Toponym
This refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions. This is important to human geography because many names mean significant things including beliefs of cultures.
Monotheism
belief in one God
Polytheism
belief in many gods
Branches
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Denominations
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single legal and administrative body.
Sects
Religious societies of a few people, usually with a preacher as their leader; Smaller religious groups
Ethnic Religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Animism
A belief that objects and natural events have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, with the worship of many gods.
Judaism
One of the oldest religions and began in the middle east. Has about 14 million of their adherents alive and follow the old testament.
Shamanism
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
Shintoism
Japan's polytheistic religion that worship nature and spirits.
Taoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Zoroastrianism
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster. Based the struggle between light and evil.
Universalizing
The type of religion that try's to convert people.
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior from the bible.
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca
Muslim Population
It is the religion of 1.3 billion people in the world. It is the predominant religion of the Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia. Half of the world's Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.
Sharia Law
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Sunni-Shia Split
began when Husayn (Muhammad's grandson) was murdered by the Umayyad. Sunni Muslims believe no one stands between a person and Allah while Shia Muslims believe imams must serve as an interpreter of Allah.
Exclave
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
Enclave
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Geomancy (feng Shui)
divination by means of signs connected with the earth as points taken at random or the arrangement of particles thrown down at random or from the configuration of a region and its relation to another to bring spiritual balance.
Jainism
The religion that says the followers are not allowed to do any harm at all
Sikhism
Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule. There holy book is called the amrit.
Bahai
The religion that say all the other religions were right at its time and now this religion
Landscapes of the Dead
cremate-Hindu
open air-Zoroastrianism
cemetery-Islam and Christianity
cremate, open air, mummify- Buddhism
Mormonism
a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah, and follows the book of Mormons.
Proselytizing
To convert (a person) from one belief, doctrine, cause, or faith to another
Reincarnation
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
Sacred space
place or space people infuse with religious meaning; Ex) Jerusalem - Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre), Judaism (Western Wall), and Islam (Dome of the Rock); Catholicism - The Vatican; Islam - Mecca, Medina; Hinduism - Varanasi & The Ganges River; ...
Secularism
No religious ties or belief
Theocracy
A government head by a religion
5 Pillars
The 5 things every Muslim must believe.
Acknowledge Allah, pray 5 times a day, give to charity, fast during Ramadan, and make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
4 Noble Truths
The 4 foundation of Buddhism.
All living beings endure suffering, suffering causes the desire to live which leads to suffering, goal of all existence is to escape suffering by reaching Nirvana, Nirvana is obtained thorough the 8 fold Path
Qua-ran
The holy book of Islam, the words of Allah interpreted by Muhammad.
8 Fold Path
A belief in Buddhism to reach Nirvana.
Which are rightness of Belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought and meditation.
Autonomous Religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Caste
The class of distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Ghetto
During Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up a law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social legal or economic pressure.
Hierarchical Religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Missionary
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Pagan
A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.
Pilgrimage
Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Solstice
Astronomical event that happens twice a year, were the earths axis is inclined toward or away from the sun, causing that day to be the shortest or longest day of the year. Many religions have important day on the two solstices.