12 terms

Ch 23 Microbial Disease of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

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Relationship between cardiovascular and lymphatic systems (Regarding: blood plasma, lymph and blood capillaries)
Blood plasma filters from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid-->Enters lymph capillaries to become "lymph" fluid-->Returns to heart through lymphatic circulation (passing through at least one lymph node)
Which of the following occur as a result of the relationship between the cardiovascular and the lymphatic system?

a. The body can better fight off microbes in lymph nodes
b. Proteins and fluids filtered from plasma can be returned to the blood
c. Blood pressures as a result of cells filtering between blood and lymph capillaries
d. All of the above
b. Proteins and fluids filtered from plasma can be returned to the blood
Signs and symptoms of sepsis
Fever, rapid heart/respiratory rates, high count of white blood cells, and possibly lymphangitis (inflamed lymph vessels-visibly red on skin)
Septicemia
Acute illness associated with the presence and presistance of pathogenic microorganisms or toxins in the blood
Sepsis
A systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by a focus of infection that releases mediators of inflammation into the bloodstream
Stages of sepsis
1. Sepsis (apparent infection/inflammatory response)

2. Severe sepsis (results from drop in blood pressure and dysfunction of at least one organ)

3. Septic shock (low blood pressure can not be controlled by addition of fluids)
Gram-negative sepsis
Caused by release of endotoxins released from lysis of gram-negative cell wall; characterized by severe drop in blood pressure; Xigris (genetically modified human activated protein C) has been used as only partially successful treatment
Gram-positive sepsis
Possibly caused by fractions of cell wall or DNA entering bloodstream; can occur after invasive hospital procedures, such as dialysis or catheter insertion
Puerperal sepsis
Nosocomial infection that begins as an infection of the uterus after childbirth or abortion and spreads to infection of the abdominal cavity (preventable with hand washing and sterilization of instruments)
Subacute bacterial endocarditis
Slowly developing inflammation of endocardium; characterized by fever, weakness, and heart murmur. Most likely arise from focus of infection elsewhere in body, such as microorganisms in the oral cavity, or in rare cases, body piercings in individuals w/ abnormal heart valves or heart defects
Acute bacterial endocarditis
Rapid developing endocarditis, usually caused by S. aureus which spread from initial site of infection to heart valves, causing fatal destruction within days
Pericarditis
Inflammation of sac around the heart (pericardium)