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subsistence economy

human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus

conspicuous consumption

a change from the prodestant ethic to an eagerness to show off wealth by the consumption of goods

deposit receipt

a certain amount of goods are held in storage to give this value

stored value

currency has good stored to back up its value

fiat money

currency issued by the government that has nothing to back it up

gross domestic product (GDP)

the amount of goods and services produced by a nation, forms a practical limit on the amount of paper money issued by a government


caused by issuing more currency than the GDP


1. private ownership of the means of production 2. market competition 3. pursuit of profit

laissez faire capitalism

government doesn't interfere with market, not what the US does

welfare or state capitalism

individuals own the means of production but the government regulates the economy for the welfare of the population

market restraints

laws and regulations that limit the capacity to manufacture and sell products


1. public ownership of means of production 2. central planning 3. the distribution of goods without profit motive

market forces

the law of supply and demand

democratic socialism

a hybrid economic system which capitalism is mixed with state ownership

capitalist ideology

market forces should determine products and prices, profit is good for humanity

socialist ideology

profit is immoral, it is the excess value that has been withheld from the workers

convergence theory

capitalism and socialism are inevitably merging

global division of labor

international depends for goods, each region doing their part

corporate capitalism

the domination of the economic system bu giant corporations


rule of an industry by a few large corporations

interlocking directorates

the same people serving on the same board of directors for several companies

quiet revolution

the changes that happen when tons of women enter the work force

underground economy

exchange of goods and services not reported to the government, drugs largest source

stagnant paychecks

paychecks are increasing, but their buying power is not


decreasing in america, peaks in childhood, bottoms out in parenthood


power relations wherever they exist, micro and macro


legitimate power is called this


illegitimate power is called this

traditional authority

based on customs, hallmark of tribal politics

rational legal authority

authority based on law or written rules and regulations, also called bureaucratic authority

charismatic authority

an individual who attracts followers based on outstanding traits, hitler, joan of arc

routinization of charisma

leadership transfer from charismatic leader to either traditional or rational legal authority

direct democracy

everyone can meet to make decision

representative democracy

representatives are chosen to express opinions and make decisions

universal citizenship

the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country


and individual holds all the power


the power is held by few


the government has total control of the people

winner take all

the political election system in america, opposite of proportional representation

proportional representation

seats in legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes that each party recieves

non-centrist parites

discouraged by winner take all system, political parties that represent less popular ideas

centrist parties

the political party that represents the center of public opinion

coalition government

a government in which a country's largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties

special interest group

a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action


people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients, a lot of times they are people who had formerly had governmental positions

political action committee (PAC)

an organization formed by one or more special interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation

functional perspective of government

the people give the government a monopoly on violence so that it can protect them, but the governments sometimes use it to exploit them


a condition of lawlessness and disorder caused by the absence of a government


the separation of power among many government groups to prevent one from having too much power

power elite

the top people in US corporations, military, and government who make the nations major decisions

conditions of war

1. antagonistic situation in which two or more states confront incompatible objectives 2. cultural tradition of war 3. fuel that heats the antagonistic situation to a point where politicians actually wage war Revengy power prestige unity position ethnicity beliefs


violence and threat of violence to meet political demands


required in war, degradation of people to objects

family of orientation

the family you grow up in

family of procreation

the family you create

system of descent

how kinship is traced over the generations


a system of reckoning descent that counts both the mothers and father's side


system of reckoning descent that counts only the mothers side


system of reckoning descent that counts only the father's side


system of society in which males dominate


system of society in which females dominate


authority more or less equally divided between people or groups in this instance between husband and wife

reasons for family

1 economic production 2 socialization of children 3 care of sick and aged 4 recreation 5 sexual control 6 reproduction

extended family

dysfunction and feelings of isolation can be felt in nuclear families because they aren't an

romantic love

sexual attraction and idealization


the tendency of people with similar characteristics to marry eachother

empty nest

a married couples position after all the children leave, 42% of all us 24 - 29 yr olds are living with their parents


and emphasis on male strength, sexual vigor, and dominance, prevalent in latino families

blended family

a family whose members were once part of other families


ten times as common as it was 30 yrs ago, unmarried couples living together

serial fatherhood

monogamous relationships one after the other

mandatory education laws

laws that require all children to attend school until a specified ago or until they complete a minimum grade in school

least industrialized education

even if mandatory education laws exist, they are not enforced

credential society

the use of diplomas and degree to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree me be irrelevant to the actual work


the process bu with education opens and closes doors of opportunity; another term for the social placement function of education


the sort of students into different educational programs on the basis of real or precieved abilities

social placement

education funnels people into societys positions

hidden cirriculum

the unwritten goals of schools, such as teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms

correspondence principle

the sociological principle that schools correspond to the social structure of their society

grade inflation

higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning

social promotion

pasing students on to the next level even though they have not thoroughly mastered basic materials

functional illiterate

a high school graduate who has difficulty with basic reading and math


common elements of every day


moral community of believers, organized, formal sevices

state religion

government sponsered religion

civil religion

religion that is such a established feature of society that the country's institutions and history are part of it

functional equivalent

in this context a substitute that serves the same functions like AA for religion


teachings or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world

conflict perspective religion

religion teaches taht the existing social arrangements of a society represent what god desires, opiate of the masses, help workers be okay with their position


the transfer of traditional societies into industrial society

prodestant ethic

the desire to accumulate capital as a duty not to spend it but as an end in itself, and to constantly reinvest it


the belief that objects have spirits


the belief that true religion is threatedned bu modernism and its calues and that faith as it was originally practiced should be restored


a new religion with few followers whose teachings and practices put it at odds with the dominant culture and religion


an extrodinary gift from god, magnetic personality


a religious group larger than a cult that still feels substantial hostility from and toward society


a religious group so integrated into th edominant culter that it is difficult to tell where the one begins and the other leaves off


a brand name within a major religion, for example, methodist or baptist

social class in religion

status consistency in religion, americans who change their social class also have a tendency to change their religion


belonging to the world and its affairs

secularization of religion

the replacement o fa religions spiritual concerns with worldly concerns can lead to the splintering of a religious group


rural, close knit community

convergence theory

there is not a sequence to the development of nations, they can skip stages to get to industrialization

dialectical process

each arrangement, or thesis, contains contradicitons, or antitheses, which must be resolved; the new arrangement, or synthesis, contains its own contradictions, and so on. -----> basically this means each ruling groups sows its own seeds of destruction

corporate welfare

the financial incentives to either get a corporation to move or stay somewhere

environmental injustice

pollution of the environment affecting minorities and the poor the most


messing up the people who legally harm the environment

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