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107 terms

Sociology Final

STUDY
PLAY
subsistence economy
human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus
conspicuous consumption
a change from the prodestant ethic to an eagerness to show off wealth by the consumption of goods
deposit receipt
a certain amount of goods are held in storage to give this value
stored value
currency has good stored to back up its value
fiat money
currency issued by the government that has nothing to back it up
gross domestic product (GDP)
the amount of goods and services produced by a nation, forms a practical limit on the amount of paper money issued by a government
inflation
caused by issuing more currency than the GDP
capitalism
1. private ownership of the means of production 2. market competition 3. pursuit of profit
laissez faire capitalism
government doesn't interfere with market, not what the US does
welfare or state capitalism
individuals own the means of production but the government regulates the economy for the welfare of the population
market restraints
laws and regulations that limit the capacity to manufacture and sell products
socialism
1. public ownership of means of production 2. central planning 3. the distribution of goods without profit motive
market forces
the law of supply and demand
democratic socialism
a hybrid economic system which capitalism is mixed with state ownership
capitalist ideology
market forces should determine products and prices, profit is good for humanity
socialist ideology
profit is immoral, it is the excess value that has been withheld from the workers
convergence theory
capitalism and socialism are inevitably merging
global division of labor
international depends for goods, each region doing their part
corporate capitalism
the domination of the economic system bu giant corporations
oligopoly
rule of an industry by a few large corporations
interlocking directorates
the same people serving on the same board of directors for several companies
quiet revolution
the changes that happen when tons of women enter the work force
underground economy
exchange of goods and services not reported to the government, drugs largest source
stagnant paychecks
paychecks are increasing, but their buying power is not
leisure
decreasing in america, peaks in childhood, bottoms out in parenthood
politics
power relations wherever they exist, micro and macro
authority
legitimate power is called this
coercion
illegitimate power is called this
traditional authority
based on customs, hallmark of tribal politics
rational legal authority
authority based on law or written rules and regulations, also called bureaucratic authority
charismatic authority
an individual who attracts followers based on outstanding traits, hitler, joan of arc
routinization of charisma
leadership transfer from charismatic leader to either traditional or rational legal authority
direct democracy
everyone can meet to make decision
representative democracy
representatives are chosen to express opinions and make decisions
universal citizenship
the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country
dictatorship
and individual holds all the power
oligarchy
the power is held by few
totalitarianism
the government has total control of the people
winner take all
the political election system in america, opposite of proportional representation
proportional representation
seats in legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes that each party recieves
non-centrist parites
discouraged by winner take all system, political parties that represent less popular ideas
centrist parties
the political party that represents the center of public opinion
coalition government
a government in which a country's largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties
special interest group
a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action
lobbyists
people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients, a lot of times they are people who had formerly had governmental positions
political action committee (PAC)
an organization formed by one or more special interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation
functional perspective of government
the people give the government a monopoly on violence so that it can protect them, but the governments sometimes use it to exploit them
anarchy
a condition of lawlessness and disorder caused by the absence of a government
pluralism
the separation of power among many government groups to prevent one from having too much power
power elite
the top people in US corporations, military, and government who make the nations major decisions
conditions of war
1. antagonistic situation in which two or more states confront incompatible objectives 2. cultural tradition of war 3. fuel that heats the antagonistic situation to a point where politicians actually wage war Revengy power prestige unity position ethnicity beliefs
terrorism
violence and threat of violence to meet political demands
dumanization
required in war, degradation of people to objects
family of orientation
the family you grow up in
family of procreation
the family you create
system of descent
how kinship is traced over the generations
bilateral
a system of reckoning descent that counts both the mothers and father's side
matrilineal
system of reckoning descent that counts only the mothers side
patrilineal
system of reckoning descent that counts only the father's side
patriarchy
system of society in which males dominate
matriarchy
system of society in which females dominate
egalitarian
authority more or less equally divided between people or groups in this instance between husband and wife
reasons for family
1 economic production 2 socialization of children 3 care of sick and aged 4 recreation 5 sexual control 6 reproduction
extended family
dysfunction and feelings of isolation can be felt in nuclear families because they aren't an
romantic love
sexual attraction and idealization
homogamy
the tendency of people with similar characteristics to marry eachother
empty nest
a married couples position after all the children leave, 42% of all us 24 - 29 yr olds are living with their parents
machismo
and emphasis on male strength, sexual vigor, and dominance, prevalent in latino families
blended family
a family whose members were once part of other families
cohabitation
ten times as common as it was 30 yrs ago, unmarried couples living together
serial fatherhood
monogamous relationships one after the other
mandatory education laws
laws that require all children to attend school until a specified ago or until they complete a minimum grade in school
least industrialized education
even if mandatory education laws exist, they are not enforced
credential society
the use of diplomas and degree to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree me be irrelevant to the actual work
gatekeeping
the process bu with education opens and closes doors of opportunity; another term for the social placement function of education
tracking
the sort of students into different educational programs on the basis of real or precieved abilities
social placement
education funnels people into societys positions
hidden cirriculum
the unwritten goals of schools, such as teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms
correspondence principle
the sociological principle that schools correspond to the social structure of their society
grade inflation
higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning
social promotion
pasing students on to the next level even though they have not thoroughly mastered basic materials
functional illiterate
a high school graduate who has difficulty with basic reading and math
profane
common elements of every day
church
moral community of believers, organized, formal sevices
state religion
government sponsered religion
civil religion
religion that is such a established feature of society that the country's institutions and history are part of it
functional equivalent
in this context a substitute that serves the same functions like AA for religion
cosmology
teachings or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world
conflict perspective religion
religion teaches taht the existing social arrangements of a society represent what god desires, opiate of the masses, help workers be okay with their position
modernization
the transfer of traditional societies into industrial society
prodestant ethic
the desire to accumulate capital as a duty not to spend it but as an end in itself, and to constantly reinvest it
animism
the belief that objects have spirits
fundamentalism
the belief that true religion is threatedned bu modernism and its calues and that faith as it was originally practiced should be restored
cult
a new religion with few followers whose teachings and practices put it at odds with the dominant culture and religion
charisma
an extrodinary gift from god, magnetic personality
sect
a religious group larger than a cult that still feels substantial hostility from and toward society
ecclesia
a religious group so integrated into th edominant culter that it is difficult to tell where the one begins and the other leaves off
denomination
a brand name within a major religion, for example, methodist or baptist
social class in religion
status consistency in religion, americans who change their social class also have a tendency to change their religion
secular
belonging to the world and its affairs
secularization of religion
the replacement o fa religions spiritual concerns with worldly concerns can lead to the splintering of a religious group
gemeinschaft
rural, close knit community
convergence theory
there is not a sequence to the development of nations, they can skip stages to get to industrialization
dialectical process
each arrangement, or thesis, contains contradicitons, or antitheses, which must be resolved; the new arrangement, or synthesis, contains its own contradictions, and so on. -----> basically this means each ruling groups sows its own seeds of destruction
corporate welfare
the financial incentives to either get a corporation to move or stay somewhere
environmental injustice
pollution of the environment affecting minorities and the poor the most
ecosabotage
messing up the people who legally harm the environment