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Terms in this set (44)

• Level of analysis= mainly individual, some structural
• Model= group conflict model of law- argues that we all disagree on right and wrong and our opinions depend on our structure (our social standing), this disagreement is represented in the law
• According to this theory (DAT): crime is learned
o Just as any other behavior is, through interactions (and different associations) with others
o Criminal behavior is the result of socialization
• Learn from parents, friends, teachers, surroundings, TV, watching
o What is learned? What leads to criminal behavior?
• Definitions- the cognitions associated with a behavior that tell us if that behavior is accept/unacceptable, right/wrong, it's the rationalization of why you do a behavior
Either favorable or unfavorable to crime
In every interaction you learn definitions
• Definitions favorable for smoking weed
o Has pain relieving properties
o Relaxation
o Harmless
o Non-addictive
o Fun
• Unfavorable
o Drug testing
o Gateway drug
o Funds serious crime
• Techniques- how to perform the crime
• Opportunities- opportunity to do the crime
Objective versus objective opportunity
• An objective opportunity to drink underage-tailgates
• Subjective- one person thinks it's a good opportunity for crime
o Ex someone leaving their car running
o DAT: The Role of social structure
• Mostly an individual process but what it the role of social structure?
Social structure determines where you meet your friends
• Close social relationships→learn definitions favorable to crime, learn techniques, opportunity,→ crime
o Level of analysis- mostly individual, a little structural
o Model of law= group conflict model, differences in opinions
o Deviance is caused primarily by what?- that we label certain people as criminal
• Caused by the way primary groups and organizations react to the behaviors of a person
Importance of primary groups (ex?)
• Primary groups- parents, teachers, friends
Importance of organizations (ex?)
• Schools, criminal justice system,
o Kids do behavior that isn't that bad- just normal teenager behavior, over time seen as deviant→internalize the label see yourself as deviant→ become deviant/more deviant
• Primary deviance- before the label
• Secondary deviance- after the label
• According to labeling theory, a behavior is not "deviant" until it is "labeled"
• Tennenbaum's Dramatization of Evil- argued that normal kid behavior is repeated over time and eventually it is viewed by someone as problematic and over time the community's view toward that particular behavior harden and define that behavior as deviant
Once they do that, that person gets that deviant label
Through that role taking process, self fulfilling prophecy
• Lemert's Labeling
Perspective
• Primary vs. secondary deviance
o Primary-the things we do that over time get labeled
o Secondary- internalize the label
• Deviance (not too serious)→Social reaction→ criminal/deviant identity→ more serious deviance
• Labeling Perspective: The Role of Social Structure
o According to labeling theory, crime is dependent on the role-taking process
o What about the role of social structure
• People without power will be labeled
Inequality in society→powerful create and apply labels→ Powerless become subjects of labeling→Criminal Deviant Identity→criminal behavior (then arrow points back to inequality in society)
Policy implications- so what should we do?
• If it's not that big of a deal→ take a hands off approach
• Level of analysis- individual- concerned with who's most likely to be a victim and where/when it will happen
o At the structural level it is concerned with changes over time
• Ex: when in our history would violent crime be particularly high
• Often used in victimization research- where, when, why
• Crime= explained by the activities of people's everyday lives
o We can look at those behaviors and try to explain why victimization occurs/ what changed in society that lead to higher rates of victimization
• What we do
Ex someone working in an office vs. working from home- person working in office has greater chance of victimization
• Where we go
Drive yourself vs. public transportation
IC at night on Thursday vs. daytime
• With whom we interact
And the behaviors those people are doing
People who are criminal/ people who are single/ people with families
• Focuses on situations
o What about a particular situation would increase the likelihood of being victimized
• Ex crime more likely to occur: at a bar, at night, an alleyway, etc.
• Three key elements that increase one's risk of victimization
o Motivated offender- Rational actors who try maximize profit minimize cost, benefits outweigh the costs
• Main cost- getting caught
• More likely to be exposed to motivated offenders: in urban areas, men exposed to more motivated offenders (they are them), late teens through early 20s, lower class
o Suitable target
• Proximity and Exposure
• Target attractiveness
People: Nice clothes, jewelry, if they're intoxicated, person out of their element: tourist, distracted
Property: small things that are portable
o Absence of capable guardian
• Social guardianship
Something given to you by other people
• Having other people around
o Girl walking alone vs. with a man
• Physical guardianship
Something physical
o Critiques
• Doesn't describe what kind of crime
Random crime
• Doesn't explain who is going to do it