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What is the gram staining process?

1. Crystal violet dye plus iodine stains all bacterial cell walls
2. Alcohol* extracts* blue dye from lipid rich, thin-walled gram-negative bacteria
3. Red dye * counterstains* decolorized gram-negative bacteria

Describe gram-positive bacteria

-Rich in peptidoglycan
-retain violet dye

Describe gram-negative bacteria

-Poor in peptidoglycan
-counterstain with red dye

What is Ziehl Neelson stain used for?

Acid fast bacteria (red)

What is India ink stains used for?


What is Geimsa stain used for?

Blood smears

What is PAS used for?

Glycogen, mucopolysaccharides

What is Prussian blue stain used for?


What is Congo red stain used for?


What is osmic acid stain used for?

Electron microscopy

normal flora of the skin?

Staphylococcus epidermis

Potential skin pathogens?

Staphylococcus aureus

Normal flora of the nasopharynx?

Streptococcus viridans, anaerobes

Potential pathogens of the nasopharynx?


Normal flora of the mouth?

Streptococcus viridans

Potential pathogens of the mouth?

Candida albicans

Normal flora of the colon?

E. coli

Potential pathogens of the colon?

B.fragilis, enterococci

Normal flora of the vagina?


Potential pathogens of the vagina?

Candida albicans

Composes the inner layer of the cell wall of all bacteria?

-*thick* in gram-positive
-*thin* in gram-negative
-exception = Mycoplasma

Techoic acid forms the outer layer of the cell wall of which type of bacteria?


Lipopolysaccharide forms the outer layer of the cell wall of what type of bacteria?

-outer cell membrane = lipid bilayer
-also contains porins

What is special about mycobacteria cell walls?

Contain mycolic acid

What is special about Mycoplasma cell walls?

-It has no cell wall; membrane only
-only bacterium whose membrane contains cholesterol

Does penicillin work against Mycoplasma pneumonia?

No, penicillin attacks peptidoglycan and there are none

How are exotoxin neutralized?

By antibodys

What type of bacteria produce exotoxins?

Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

What type of bacteria produce endotoxins?

gram-negative only


-TNF, IL-1 → shock, fever
-poor antigen


-toxoid used as vaccines
-usually* heat labile*

Which toxin is responsible for *blocking the release of lysine* leading to muscle spasms?

Tetanus toxin

Which toxin is responsible for *blocking the release of acetylcholine* leading to muscle paralysis?

Botulinum toxin

Which toxin *inhibits protein synthesis* by ADP ribosylation of EF-2?

Diphtheria toxin

Which toxin causes hemoloysis, necrosis, and cell death?

Alpha toxin → staph aureus

Which bacteria is responsible for toxic shock syndrome toxin?

Staph aureus → induces cytokine that produce anaphylactic shock

Which toxin *stimulates adenylate cyclase activating GS protein*?

Cholera toxin

Which toxin *stimulates adenylate cyclase inhibiting GI protein*?

Pertussis toxin

What does the heat-stable E. coli enterotoxin do?

Stimulates at guanylate cyclase

Obligate aerobes

M tuberculosis
pseudomonas aeruginosa

Microaerophilic bacteria

campylobacter jejuni
Brucella abortus

Obligate anaerobic bacteria


most common cause of the common cold?


most common cause of pharyngitis and laryngitis?

Viral >bacterial (beta hemolyzing streptococci)

most common cause of tonsillitis?

beta hemolyzing streptococci

most common cause of otitis media?

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza

most common cause of sinusitis?

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus

most common cause of pneumonia in infants?


most common cause of pneumonia in young adults?


most common cause of pneumonia in the elderly?

Streptococcus pneumonia

most common causes of bacterial meningitis in neonates?

-E. coli
-strep agalactica (GBS)

most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults?

Neisseria Meningitidis >strep pneumoniae

most common cause of bacterial meningitis in the elderly?

Streptococcus pneumoniae >Neisseria Meningitidis

most common cause of endocarditis?


most common cause of carbuncle?


most common cause of sepsis In a catheterized patient?

S.aureus, Candida

most common cause of sepsis in a burn patient?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

most common cause of diarrhea in children?


most common cause of diarrhea in adults in the US?


most common cause of diarrhea in travelers?

E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella

most common causes of genital ulcers?

Herpes >syphilis

most common cause of urethritis?

Chlamydia > gonococcus

most common cause of cystitis?

E. coli

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