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What is the gram staining process?
1. Crystal violet dye plus iodine stains all bacterial cell walls
2. Alcohol* extracts* blue dye from lipid rich, thin-walled gram-negative bacteria
3. Red dye * counterstains* decolorized gram-negative bacteria
Composes the inner layer of the cell wall of all bacteria?
-*thick* in gram-positive
-*thin* in gram-negative
-exception = Mycoplasma
Lipopolysaccharide forms the outer layer of the cell wall of what type of bacteria?
-outer cell membrane = lipid bilayer
-also contains porins
What is special about Mycoplasma cell walls?
-It has no cell wall; membrane only
-only bacterium whose membrane contains cholesterol
Does penicillin work against Mycoplasma pneumonia?
No, penicillin attacks peptidoglycan and there are none
Which toxin is responsible for *blocking the release of lysine* leading to muscle spasms?
Which toxin is responsible for *blocking the release of acetylcholine* leading to muscle paralysis?
Which bacteria is responsible for toxic shock syndrome toxin?
Staph aureus → induces cytokine that produce anaphylactic shock
most common cause of bacterial meningitis in the elderly?
Streptococcus pneumoniae >Neisseria Meningitidis
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