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evolution of viruses
2. recombination with each other
3. gene acquisition from bacteria via transduction
houses the core of the virus
provides protection and a way to transmit viral core
composed of proteins arranged as capsomeres
1 phospholipid bilayer, prtein, carbs
2 derived from cell membrane of a previous host cell
3 helps the virus escape host cells as well as penetrate host cells
1. associated with flu viruses
2. facilitate attachment of virus to host cell, binds to sialic acid in host cell membrane
1. disrupts sialic acid of host cell membrane
2. facilitates flu virus escape from the host cell (release)
viral replication: 1. absorption
virus binds to the surface of the host cell using spikes or receptors on its capsid or envelope
viral replication: 2. pentration
1. virus or viral genome enter host cell
2. bacteriophage will release lysozyme to weaken cell well and then inject genome through wall
3. naked animal cell - via endocytosis
4. enveloped animal cell - blends into cell membrane ( envelope fusion)
5. uncoating may occur once inside host cell
viral replication: synthesis of DNA viruses (bacteriophages)
1. destroy, inhibit, or lysogenize host DNA
2. use their own viral DNA as tebplate to transcribe viral mRNA
3. use the hosts transfer RNA and ribosome to translate viral mRNA into viral proteins
4. use their DNA as a template for generating more viral cores
viral replication: synthesis of RNA viruses
1. no lysogeny
2. use their genome directly as mRNA that is transcribed by host ibosomes into viral protein
2. use their genome as a template for generating more viral cores
3. positive sense RNA goes directly, negative sense generates complementary copies (more positive sense)
1. use reverse transcriptase to transcribe their RNA into DNA
2. viral DNA uses integrase to lysogenize the host DNA
3. viral DNA transcribe into viral mRNA ---> host ribosome
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