3 Written questions
3 Multiple choice questions
- Also called Hilderbrand, became pope in 1073. He wanted to free the church from secular control. He was a monk of the Cluny movement, he saw the clergy's independence from civil powers as crutical to any reform in the church. He ruled against lay-investiture - the practice by which a high-ranking layperson such as an emperor could appoint bishops or abbots, investing them with powerand requiring their loyalty.
- In 1122 ended the controversy over lay investiture. The emperor agreed that rulers would no longer have the right to appoint bishops; all bishops would be elected and consecrated by church authority,
- A wide strip of Italy in the middle of the Italian boot or peninsula. The pope was the ruler or king, and its safety was guaranteed by Pepin. The land was given to the pope by Pepin in a formal deed called the Donation of Pepin.
2 True/False questions
Henry IV- → The German emperor who objected to the pope's ruling. He was excommunicted by the pope. The pope told his subjects not to obey him. The pope eventually asked for forgiveness. (Pg 150)
Crusades → A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.