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Final exam review psychology
Terms in this set (67)
1. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience.
2. a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that would elicit the same response naturally.
3. Perhaps the most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was:
4. Identify negative reinforcement in an example.
Blasting your car to remove the car in front of you.
5. Identify negative punishment in an example.
Dolphin trainer walks away with fish bucket when the dolphin gets aggressive.
6. Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called
7. Bandura's "Bobo doll" experiments were intended to demonstrate what?
It demonstrates one way that children could learn aggression and proposes that learning occurs through observations and interactions with other people.
8. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to the ability to store and retrieve information over time. The process of acquiring and using knowledge is called ___________ .
describe explicit memory
requires conscious thought—such as recalling who came to dinner last night or naming animals that live in the rainforest.
describe episodic memory
The memories of what you ate for breakfast, your first day of college, and your cousin's wedding are examples of episodic memory is a record of the various episodes that make up our lives
describe semantic memory
ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience. things that are common knowledge, such as the names of colors, the sounds of letters, the capitals of countries and other basic facts acquired over a lifetime.
describe implicit memory
memory that is not consciously recalled and is produced via indirect processes. Singing a familiar song is an example.
What is the order of stages in the three-stage model of memory?
Encoding- Storage- Retrieval
What is the iconic memory
What is echoic memory
What is the Capacity of short-term memory?
Between 15 and 30 seconds where small amounts of information can be kept for more than a few seconds, but less than one minute
Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed _________
The hippocampus is the structure of the brain associated with information passing from short-term memory into long-term memory. If damaged?
Person can no longer "create" long term memories
Retrograde Amnesia is what?
a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.
the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills
define mental retardation?
a condition diagnosed before age 18, usually in infancy or prior to birth, that includes below-average general intellectual function, and a lack of the skills necessary for daily living.
The IQ of intellectually gifted individuals is ____ or above.
Genie, a thirteen-year-old child, was abused all her life and never exposed to language. What is the primary reason for her inability to develop proper language?
She missed important learning mile stones that if missed then she would never get another chance.
23. What are your primary emotions?
Acceptance /Anger / Anticipation / Disgust / Fear / Joy / Sadness / Surprise
describe the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Stimuli in the environment cause physiological changes, which lead to behavior, which leads to emotion.
describe the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
Processing of emotions and physiological responses occurs simultaneously.
Stress ________ activity in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Stress also _________ activity in the parasympathetic division.
27. Consider the fight-or-flight and the tend-and-befriend responses to stress. Of the two, the __________ is healthier, because it is not associated with the release of the stress hormone _________
describe bulimia nervosa?
disorder characterized by "binge-then-purge" episodes where a person starts by consuming huge amounts of food—often doing so while hiding away from other people.
What sequence correctly orders the phases of the human sexual response cycle, from first to last?
Excitement stage, Plateau stage, Climax, Resolution stage
define the id
Primitive, instinctual urges
define the superego?
The ethical component of the personality and provides the moral standards by which the ego operates.
define the ego?
The ego operates according to the reality principle, working out realistic ways of satisfying the id's demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction to avoid negative consequences of society.
the order of the first three stages in Freud's theory of psychosexual development, from first to last?
Oral, Anal, Phallic
correctly describe Freud's phallic stage of psychosexual development?
Oedipus Complex causes castration anxiety in little boys.
Electra Complex causes penis envy in little girls.
Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self-: what?
the order in which the needs in Maslow's pyramid must be fulfilled, from the first to the last?
Biological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem, Self Actualization
define an important symptom of antisocial personality disorder?
may perform extremely cruel acts on animals or humans and feel no remorse, anxiety, or distress about their actions
Carrie is dramatic and emotionally volatile. She rapidly forms intense relationships that seem to blow up or fall apart just as quickly. Although she tends to distrust others, she also needs their attention. Carrie might be diagnosed with ________ personality disorder.
With respect to potential gender differences in the prevalence of personality disorders, antisocial is it more common in males or females? Borderline, is it more common in males or females?
example of the psychological component of the bio-psycho-social model of illness?
Lack of self control
example of the biological component of the bio-psycho-social model of illness?
excesses of the neurotransmitter dopamine may be implicated in schizophrenia
Substance abuse disorder occurs more frequently among individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder than among persons who are not diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Substance abuse disorder and bipolar disorder are therefore
ADHD stands for
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
define autistic disorder?
A serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact.
Psychologists refer to a feeling of apprehension and tension as:
What are the types of anxiety disorders?
Phobic disorder, panic disorder, general anxiety disorder
define panic disorder?
An anxiety disorder that is characterized by sudden attacks of fear and panic.
define generalized anxiety disorder?
a psychological disorder characterized by excessive or disproportionate anxiety about several aspects of life, such as work, social relationships, or financial matters.
Post Traumatic stress disorder is classified as a(n)
trauma- and stressor-related disorder" in DSM-5
define dissociative identity disorder?
formerly referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder, is a condition wherein a person's identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personalities.
Butch alternates between periods of dark despair and times of elation, great energy, recklessness, and creativity. Butch suffers from
Depression and anxiety disorders are considered ________. This means that:
Comorbidity. an individual having two diagnoses at the same time, such as anxiety and depression
What brain abnormality is NOT associated with schizophrenia?
Low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine
What is a disorder that is not in the DSM 5?
Sex with animals
Exposing genitals to an unsuspecting person
Nonliving or unusual objects or clothing of the opposite sex
Rubbing up against unsuspecting persons
Being beaten, humiliated, bound or made to suffer
Sexual activity with a prepubescent child
Witnessing suffering of another person
Observing an unsuspecting person naked or disrobing or engaged in intimate behavior
What is body dysmorphic disorder?
A mental illness involving obsessive focus on a perceived flaw in appearance.
True or false, Munchausen syndrome by Proxy is when a caregiver makes up or causes an illness or injury in a child under his or her care.
What culture has the highest suicide rate?
Who commits suicide more often, males or females?
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