The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection.
It provides mainly sensory anesthesia.
It can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region.
It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery.
all of the above
Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
CSF flow can be disrupted.
viruses can be the cause.
bacteria can be the cause.
inflammation of the meninges occurs.
all of the above
Which of the following associations is incorrect?
11 thoracic spinal nerves (INCORRECT)
8 cervical spinal nerves
5 lumbar spinal nerves
5 sacral spinal nerves
1 coccygeal spinal nerve
During the procedure known as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region.
Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
Somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord control all of the following muscles, except those that
move the neck.(NOT)
move the hand and fingers.
position the pectoral girdle.
move the forearm and hand.
move the arm.
Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
loss of sensation in his torso
A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
lead to muscle weakness or paralysis.
If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
might be unable to breathe on his own.
The region of the body surface monitored by a pair of spinal nerves is known as a(n) __________.
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the
In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves, except the
The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord form the
white rami communicantes.
The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the spinal nerve are
gray rami communicantes.
Postganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form
The ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs.
Each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus, except the ________ nerve.
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
The ventral rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following, except the ________ plexus.
As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve.
The nerve crucial for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is called the ________ nerve.
Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following, except
where information processing occurs.
whether they are sensory or motor. (NOT)
the complexity of the neural circuit.
the motor response.
The stretch reflex
is important in regulating muscle length and activated when a skeletal muscle lengthens.
All of the following are true of neural reflexes, except that they
involve at least two neurons.
cannot be modified by the brain. (NOT)
are automatic motor responses.
are the simplest form of behavior.
help preserve homeostasis.
In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?
a polysynaptic reflex (GREATER)
a monosynaptic reflex
Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?
normal in newborns
why you close your eyes when you sneeze (NOT)
abnormal in adults
flaring of the toes when the sole is stroked
a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts