Ch. 13 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes
________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles.
Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of sensory neurons.
The spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments.
Compared to the vertebral column, the spinal cord is
The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of motor neurons.
The subdural space lies between
the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
cell bodies of sensory neurons.
The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly
The epidural space contains
connective tissue and blood vessels.
The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection. It provides mainly sensory anesthesia. It can be difficult to achieve in the upper cervical and midthoracic region. It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery. all of the above
Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
Spinal nerves are
both sensory and motor.
The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
CSF flow can be disrupted. viruses can be the cause. bacteria can be the cause. inflammation of the meninges occurs. all of the above
The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age
The dura mater tapers inferiorly to form the ________.
The ________ separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal.
During the procedure known as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region.
Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
Somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord control all of the following muscles, except those that
move the neck.(NOT) move the hand and fingers. position the pectoral girdle. move the forearm and hand. move the arm.
The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
Enlargements of the spinal cord occur
in those spinal segments that control the limbs.
Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
somatic motor nuclei.
Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
loss of sensation in his torso
The gray horns of the spinal cord contain __________.
The gray horns contain all of these elements.
The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
nerve cell bodies
A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
lead to muscle weakness or paralysis.
The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus.
The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.
If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
might be unable to breathe on his own.
The outermost connective-tissue covering of nerves is the
If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
sensory input would be blocked.
Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region.
The ________ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.
In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?
The region of the body surface monitored by a pair of spinal nerves is known as a(n) __________.
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the
In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves, except the