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Ch. 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the
thalamus.
Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?
diencephalon
The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the
pons
As you ascend from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum, the functions of each successive level become
both more complex and less crucial to visceral functions.
Each lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle through a(n)
interventricular foramen.
What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?
subarachnoid space
Which of these is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain?
pons
cerebrum
mesencephalon
diencephalon
prosencephalon(NOT)
The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the
medulla oblongata.
The cerebrum develops from the embryonic __________.
telencephalon
The cerebellum and pons develop from the
metencephalon.
The floor of the diencephalon is formed by the
hypothalamus.
A neural cortex is found on the surface of the
cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum.
The thin partition that separates the first and second ventricles is the
septum pellucidum.
The adult human brain contains almost ________ of the body's neural tissue.
97 percent
Male brains are typically ________ compared to female brains.
larger
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
telencephalon
Cerebrospinal fluid enters the subarachnoid space through the
lateral and median apertures.
Ependymal cells work to
remove waste products from CSF.
surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus.
secrete CSF into the ventricles.
Hydrocephalus or "water on the brain" may
result from excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid or from blockage of circulation of CSF.
Cerebrospinal fluid enters the blood circulation at the
superior sagittal sinus.
The dural fold that projects into the longitudinal fissure between cerebral hemispheres is called the
falx cerebri.
Cerebrospinal fluid
is secreted by ependymal cells.
The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus is the
pia mater.
The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are the
internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries.
Which of the following help to protect the brain?
the blood-brain barrier
the CSF
the cranial meninges
the bones of the skull
all of the above
Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier?
It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.
Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
The capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
It is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds.
all of the above
What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?
pia mater
The cells that cover the outer surfaces of CNS endothelial cells are the
astrocytes.
Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
provides ATP for impulse transmission
The choroid plexus produces CSF at a rate of about
500 mL/day .
The third and fourth ventricles are linked by a slender canal designated as the
mesencephalic aqueduct.
Specialized ________ cells form the secretory component of the choroid plexus.
ependymal
As CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependyma.
diffusion
Which antibiotic enters the CNS without difficulty because it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier?
sulfadiazine
Two large venous sinuses, the sagittal sinuses, lie within a dural fold called the ________.
falx cerebri
The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in
the medulla oblongata.
The cardiovascular reflexes are based in the
the medulla oblongata.
The medulla oblongata regulates
blood pressure and respiration.
Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is true?
It is part of the brain stem.
It connects the brain and spinal cord.
It contains centers for respiration.
All of these statements are true of the medulla oblongata
Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false?
It encloses the fourth ventricle.
It relays sensory and motor information.
It lies between the cervical cord and the pons.
None of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false.
Cardiovascular centers located in the ________ adjust the heart rate, the strength of cardiac contractions, and the flow of blood through the peripheral tissues.
medulla oblongata
The folds of the surface of the cerebellum are called ________.
folia
The pons exchanges information with the cerebellum over the __________.
middle cerebellar peduncle
The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as
ataxia.
The tract that links the cerebellum with the pons is the
middle cerebellar peduncle.
The mesencephalon contains the headquarters of the ________, a specialized component of the reticular formation that controls alertness and attention.
reticular activating system
The ________ receive visual input from the lateral geniculates.
superior colliculi
Stimulation of the reticular formation results in
increased consciousness.
Injury to this center in the mesencephalon may lead to Parkinson's disease.
substantia nigra
The medulla oblongata relays auditory information to the
inferior colliculi.
The regions of the mesencephalon that issue subconscious motor commands that affect upper limb position and background muscle tone are the
red nuclei.
Nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon are the
cerebral peduncles.
The ________ relay auditory information to the auditory cortex.
medial geniculates
The tectum of the mesencephalon contains the
superior and inferior colliculi.
The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?
inferior colliculi
Examination of a tissue sample from the central nervous system reveals many darkly pigmented cells. This tissue probably came from the
substantia nigra.
The ________, a narrow stalk, connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
infundibulum
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
medulla oblongata.
Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?
secretes oxytocin
controls autonomic centers
regulates body temperature
produces ADH
all of the above
The ________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
hypothalamus
Which of the following is not a component of the limbic system?
amygdaloid body
hippocampus
cingulate gyrus
globus pallidus (NOT)
fornix
Terry suffers from dissociation of memories from their emotional content as the result of an automobile accident. What system of the brain is probably damaged?
limbic system
Which of the following is not a property of the limbic system?
contains cerebral and diencephalic components
links conscious functions of the cerebral cortex with unconscious functions of the brain stem
located between the border of the cerebrum and diencephalon
functions in emotions, learning, and memory
functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather (NOT)
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ________ lobe.
left frontal
Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to
play the piano.
Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of
Parkinson disease.
The cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are
III, IV, and VI.
The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is
olfaction
Bob is struck on the left side of the head and is knocked unconscious. When he recovers consciousness, he can hear individual words but cannot understand the meaning of phrases or sentences. This implies damage to his
general interpretive area.
The primary motor cortex is the surface of the
precentral gyrus.
The general interpretive area
allows us to interpret what is read or heard.
The corpus callosum is composed of
commissural fibers.
Droopy eyelids and double vision can result from injury to the ________ nerve.
oculomotor
The highest levels of information processing occur in the
cerebrum
Difficulty in swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve(s)?
vagus and glossopharyngeal
There are ________ pairs of cranial nerves.
12
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the
longitudinal fissure.
A(n) ________ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.
electroencephalogram
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobe.
The right hemisphere is usually the dominant hemisphere.
False
The auditory cortex is located in the
temporal lobe
Within each hemisphere, deep to the floor of the lateral ventricle, you will find the
basal nuclei.
The putamen and globus pallidus are frequently considered to be subdivisions of the
lentiform nucleus.
Higher-order functions
combine both conscious and unconscious information processing.
can be adjusted over time based on experience.
involve complex interactions among areas of the cortex.
all of the above
________ is a condition resulting from an inflammation of a facial nerve.
Bell palsy
________ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.
Aphasia
A person with a damaged visual association area may be
able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.
Parkinson disease is the result of
inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons.
Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem?
reduced ability to regulate body temperature
Tic douloureux is
also called trigeminal neuralgia.
a disorder of the maxillary and mandibular branches of nerve V.
characterized by almost totally debilitating pain.
triggered by contact with the lip, tongue, or gums.
all of the above
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate and synapse on neurons in the
olfactory bulb.
A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?
hypoglossal
Which of the following symptoms would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve?
weakness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
At the optic chiasm
axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross.
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
occipital lobe.
In most cases, the general interpretive center and the speech center are located in the ________ cerebral hemisphere.
left
The hemisphere of the brain that performs analytical tasks is called the ________ hemisphere.
dominant
A person who has difficulty comprehending and using written language suffers from the disorder known as ________.
dyslexia
Cortical regions that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called ________ areas.
association
Another term for trigeminal neuralgia is tic douloureux.
True
During the middle of the 20th century, a drastic procedure termed prefrontal lobotomy was used to treat a variety of mental illnesses.
True