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20 terms

Psychology, Exam Preparation

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Galton
He believed that intelligence was a general ability that could be measured by simple tests
Binet
He studied the intellectual development of children and developed intelligence testing/mental age
Spearman
He was influenced by Galton. He supported the idea of intelligence testing and found that if you scored high on one test you'd score high on another
Wechsler
He developed IQ test with both performance and verbal sections. Separate tests for adults and children
Gardner
Proposed that everyone has seven intelligences and that each works separately
Goleman
Made popular the idea of emotional intelligence, the ability to understand your own and others' emotions
Schema
An idea about what something is and how to deal with it
Accommodation
Changing our schemas to include new experiences and information that cannot fit into existing schemas
Assimilation
Including new experiences and information into current schemas
Polarisation
The strengthening of ideas in individuals when in a group where people have similar attitudes
Obedience
Changing behaviour in response to an instruction or direct request by an authority figure
Conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or attitudes to coincide with a group standard
Piaget's four stages of development
Sensori-Motor (birth-2)
Pre-operational (2-7)
Concrete operational (7-11)
Formal operational (11+)
Sensori-motor stage
Babies develop their understanding of the world by interacting with it - touching, looking, listening
Pre-operational stage
Children are unable to think logically and are egocentric
Concrete operational stage
Children can think logically and can carry out mental operation, provided they are working with materials
Formal operational stage
Children are capable of abstract and logical thinking
Observational learning
Watching other people and copying their behaviour (modelling)
Social facilitation
Achieving better results when other people are around (generally simpler tasks)
Social inhibition
Achieving worse results when other people are around (generally complex tasks)