Biology Chapter 3 "Cell Structure and Function "

Chapter 3 "Mader's Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology" GTCC Dr. Jordan's PowerPoint and notes
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What are the three main parts of a cell?
Plasma membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
__________ are scattered throughout the cytoplasm and have various functions
Organelles
What is it that maintains cell shape and allows the cell and its content to move?
cytoskeleton
WHat is the Phospholipid bilayer?
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes
What seperates the inside of the cell (cytoplasm) from the outside?
Plasma Membrane
________ molecules stabilize the membrane.
Cholesterol
What two things attaches to the outer surface of some protein and lipid molecules mark cells as belonging to a particular individual?
Glycoproteins and glycolipids
What stores the genetic information?
The Nucleus
Chromatin contains what three things?
DNA, protein, and some RNA
What coils into rod like structures called chromosomes before the cell divides?
Chromatin
Where ribosomes are formed?
Nucleoli
The Nucleoli contains what?
rRNA
The _________ is the nuclear envelope separates nucleus from cytoplasm?
The Nucleus
Ribosomes produce _________ that carry out various functions within the cell.
proteins
Where can Ribosomes be found?
Can be found free within the cytoplasm
Also found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
Endomembrane System houses what two major parts of the cell?
Nuclear envelope
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.
The Rough ER has attaches what?
ribosomes
The Rough ER processes ________ produced by attached __________.
proteins & ribosomes
Golgi apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Receives protein and/or lipid-filled vesicles from ER
Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus contains ________ that modify proteins and lipids
enzymes
Golgi Apparatus produces what?
lysosomes
Lysosomes contain what?
hydrolytic digestive enzymes
What is responsible for cell rejuvenation and development?
Lysosomes
Vesicles
tiny membranous sacs
What is the function of Peroxisomes?
Detoxify drugs, alcohol, and other toxins
Large numbers of Peroxisomes are found where?
liver and kidney
What are Peroxisomes?
Enzyme-containing vesicles, similar to lysosomes
Mitochondria are bond by what?
double membrane
What is the site of ATP production?
Mitochondria
What is cellular respiration?
use up oxygen and release carbon dioxide
Mitochondria undergo what?
cellular respiration
What does the The Cytoskeleton do?
Helps maintain the cell's shape and anchors or assists the movement of organelles
The Cytoskeleton includes what?
microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments
Centrioles is composed of what?
microtubules
What are Centrioles?
A pair of centrioles are found near the nucleus of every cell
Centrioles are involved in what?
cell division
Centrioles form the for each cilium or flagellum
basal body (anchor point)
Cilia and flagella are projections of?
cells
Centrioles allow for?
movement of cell or movement of material along the cell surface
Simple Diffusion
Movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
In Simple Diffusion, movement of atoms or molecules occur until when?
they are equally distributed
What certain types of molecules can enter and exit a cell by simple diffusion?
lipid soluble or gases
simple diffusion requires no
cellular energy
Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a plasma membrane
When does Osmosis occur?
when there is an unequal distribution of water on either side of a selectively permeable membrane
What is Osmotic pressure?
force exerted on a selectively permeable membrane
What does Tonicity refer to?
concentration of solute versus the concentration of water
What does Isotonic to?
equal concentration of solutes (dissolved substances) and solvent (water) inside and outside cell; cell shape is maintained
What does Hyp"O"tonic mean?
higher concentration of water (lower concentration of solutes) outside cell; water moves into cell causing it to swell and eventually lyse
What does Hyp"E"rtonic mean?
lower concentration of water (higher concentration of solutes) outside cell; water moves out of cell causing it to shrink or crenate
What is Filtration?
is the movement of liquid from high pressure to low pressure
What does Facilitated diffusion refer to?
Movement from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration (no energy required)
________ are transported by means of a protein carrier
Solutes