Tx: BP, pulse rate, cardiac output, migraines/headaches
Side effects: orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, CHF, blood dyscrasias
Nursing considerations: Monitor: changes in labs (protein, BUN, creatinine) that indicate nephritic syndrome, BP, HR, and signs of edema. Teach client to rise slowly, report bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression, or fever. Taper off medication.
CIN or MYCIN
Tx: Interfere with the protein synthesis of the bacteria, causing the bacteria to die. Active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria and against some gram-positive organisms.
Side effects: Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, seizures, blood dyscrasias, hypotension, rash
Nursing considerations: obtain history of allergies, monitor: I & O, vital signs during IV infusions, therapeutic levels, signs of nephrotoxicit and ototoxicity, and maintain patent IV site.
Side effects: Drowsiness, lethargy, ataxia, depression, restlessness, slurred speech, bradycardia, hypotension, diplopia, nystagmus, nausea/vomiting, constipation, incontinence, urinary retention, resp depression, rash, urticaria
Nursing considerations: monitor: respirations, liver fx, kidney fx, bone marrow fx, signs of chemical abuse,
Tx: conditions requiring suppression of the immune system and in Addison's disease. Anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, and anti-stress effects. Replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, as immunosuppressive drugs in post transplant pts, reduce cerebral edema associated with head trauma, neurosurgery and brain tumors.
Side effects: Acne, poor wound healing, ecchymosis, bruising, petechia, depression, flushing, sweating, mood changes (depression), hypertension, osteoporosis, diarrhea, hemorrhage
NOTE: These drugs can cause Cushing's syndrome. Signs of Cushing's syndrome include moon faces, edema, ↑ blood glucose, purple straie, weight gain, buffalo hump, and hirsutism.
Nursing Considerations: monitor blood glucose, BP, signs of infection. Weight the pt daily.
Tx: Inhibit viral growth by inhibiting an enzyme within the virus. Pts with AIDS are often treated w/ this category of drugs. Used in herpetic lesions, varicella infections (chicken pox), herpes zoster (shingles), herpes simplex (fever blisters), encephalitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and resp syncytial virus (RSV).
Side effects: nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, oliguria, proteinuria, vaginitis, CNS: tremors, confusion, seizures, severe sudden anemia
Nursing considerations: report rash, because it can be an allergic reaction. Monitor: signs of infection, creatinine level frequently, liver profile, bowel pattern before and during tx.
CAUTION: Irritating to tissue, Z track method should be used when given IM. If allergic to one most likely allergic to all. Give Benadryl for allergic reactions.
Side effects: extrapyramidal effects, drowsiness, sedation, orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, agranulocytosis, photosensitivity, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Tx: cholesterol & triglyceride levels & the potential for cardiovascular disease. NOTE: Don't confuse w/ statin drugs used for antifungals! Ex: nystatin, mycostatin, nilstat
CAUTION: Don't take with grapefruit juice.
Do take at night. Have regular liver studies to determine the presence of liver disease. Rhabdomyolysis, a muscle wasting syndrome, has been linked with the use of cholesterol lowering agens. The pt should be instructed to report unexplained muscle soreness and weakness.
Side effects: rash, alopecia, dyspepsia, liver dysfunction, muscle weakness (myalgia), headache
Nursing considerations: diet cholesterol and fat, monitor: cholesterol levels, liver profile, renal fx, muscle pain and weakness, tell pt to report visual changes because cataracts can occur in pts taking vastatins.
Tx: Block vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting angiotensin II, used to tx primary or secondary hypertension, good for pts who c/o coughing associated w/ ACE inhibitors.
Side effects: dizziness, insomnia, depression, angina pectoris, second degree AV block, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, impotence, muscle cramps, neutropenia, cough
Nursing considerations: monitor: BP, pulse, BUN, creatinine, electrolytes, hydration status, tell pt to report edema in feet and legs daily
Tx: gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), acid reflux, and gastric ulcers. They inhibit histamine 2 (H2) release in the gastric parietal cells, therefore inhibiting gastric acids.
Side effects: confusion, bradycardia/tachycardia, diarrhea, psychosis, seizures, agranulocytosis, rash, alopecia, gynecomastia, galactorrhea
Nursing considerations: Monitor BUN levels, administer with meals, if taking with antacids take antacids one hour before or after these drugs, cimetidine may be prescribed in one large dose at bedtime, sucralfate decreases the effects of histamine 2 receptor blockers.
Tx: used in the tx of thrombolytic disease. Tx pulmonary emboli, MI, DVT, after coronary artery bypass surgery, and for other conditions requiring anticoagulation. The pt should have PTT checked to evaluate the bleeding time when giving heparin. The antidote for heparin is protamine sulfate.
Side effects: fever, diarrhea, stomatitis, bleeding, hematuria, dermatitis, alopecia, pruritis
Nursing considerations: Blood studies ( heamtocrit and occult blood in stool) shoud be checked every three months. Monitor PTT often for heparin ( therapeutic levels are 1.5-2.0 times the control) There is no specific bleeding time done for enoxaparin (Lovenox). Monitor: platlet count, signs of bleeding and infection
7th Edition•ISBN: 9780323402118Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton 7th Edition•ISBN: 9780323527361Julie S Snyder, Mariann M Harding 7th Edition•ISBN: 9780323087896 (1 more)Julie S Snyder, Linda Lilley, Shelly Collins 7th Edition•ISBN: 9781266365010Jahangir Moini