Chapter 8: DNA Structure, Replication, Transcription, and Translation

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Both Avery and Hershey-Chase concluded that ________ was the genetic material of the cell.
DNA
What sugar is in DNA?
Deoxyribose
What sugar is in RNA?
Ribose
What are the two roles of DNA Polymerase?
To check and correct base pair errors in replication

and

To bond nucelotides together
What does it mean that DNA is a universal code?
The genetic code is the same in all organisms. (DNA is the same in all organisms, just in different sequences)
What is Chargaff's rule?
The amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine.

The amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine.
When does DNA replication take place?
During S phase of interphase
What is the goal of DNA replication?
To make two identical, complementary strands of DNA to be divided during cell division.
If I say DNA strands are semi-conservative, what does this mean?
This means that after replication, each DNA molecule has one newly synthesized DNA strand and one original DNA strand.
DNA is a polymer of what monomers?
Nucleotides
What are the base pair rules for DNA?
Adenine pairs with thymine

Cytosine pairs with Guanine
What are the base pair rules for RNA?
Adenine pairs with URACIL

Cytosine pairs with Guanine
Given a sequence of mRNA, be able to tell me the amino acid sequence.

Example: AUGGUUUAG
Methionine-Valine-STOP
What are the differences in prokaryotic DNA replication?

Name three!
Prokaryotic DNA:
Packaged in plasmids
Replication starts at only one site
Replication occurs in the cytoplasm
What is a codon?
A nucleotide triplet (3 nucleotides) that codes for an amino acid
What is a peptide bond?
The bond that holds two amino acids together
What nitrogenous bases are found in DNA?
ATGC

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine
What nitrogenous bases are found in RNA?
AUGC

Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine
Hershey and Chase concluded that...
DNA is the genetic material in a cell
What bond holds base pairs together?
Hydrogen bonds
What bond holds the backbone together?
Covalent bonds
What is the central dogma?
DNA to RNA to Protein
What is the purpose Transfer RNA (tRNA)?
carries an amino acid to its correct codon
What is the purpose of messenger RNA (mRNA)?
carries the message from DNA that will be translated to protein
What is the purpose of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)?
forms part of ribosomes where proteins are made
What is an example of a mutagen?
UV rays and some chemicals
Which type of mutation has a piece of DNA breaking away from its chromosome and becoming attached to a non-homologous chromosome?
translocation
What type of mutation has no effect on phenotype?
silent
What are the three types of RNA we learned about?
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
What type of mutation substitutes only one nucleotide for another?
point mutation
What type of mutation inserts or deletes a nucleotide?
frameshift mutation
What are the two types of frameshift mutation?
Insertion and deletion
Griffith concluded that...
there was a transforming factor

(genetic material can be transferred between dead and living bacteria)
Given a sequence of DNA, be able to tell me the complementary strand.

Example: TACCAAATC
ATGGTTTAG
In the process of replication what are the four steps?
1. DNA is unzipped
2. Nucleotides pair with the template strand
3. DNA polymerase bonds and checks nucleotides
4. Two identical, semi-conservative molecules are formed
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base
What is the shape of DNA as discovered by Watson and Crick?
Double helix
What process produces RNA from DNA?
Transcription
What process produces protein from RNA?
Translation
What process produces and exact copy of a cell's DNA?
Replication
Given a sequence of DNA, be able to tell me the mRNA strand.

Example: ATGGTTTAG
UACCAAAUC