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rebuilding of the south and readmitting confederate states back into the union

Presidential reconstruction

president in control of the reconstruction process

Radical reconstruction

congress in control of the reconstruction process


pardon (free pass)


former slaves

martial law

military law


a formal charge of misconduct or wrong doing


white southerners who opposed secession; cooperate with Republicans and helped blacks


northerners who move south for political or economical opportunity or to reform


legal seperation based on race

Black Codes

laws to keep blacks inferior

Jim Crow laws

laws passed that seperated public spaces


Ku Klux Klan used fear and violence to control freedmen

13th Amendment

abolishes slavery in U.S.

14th Amendment

states anyone born in the U.S. is a citizen and guarentees all citizens have equal protection

15th Amendment

right to vote cannot be denied based on race; protects freedmen's right to vote

Literacy Test

read and explain parts of the Constitution etc.

Poll Tax

pay a fee to vote

Grandfather Clause

could vote if your grandfather voted in elections prior to Reconstruction

Freedman's Bureau

government agency to help formerr slaves adjust to freedom

Plessy vs. ferguson

Homer Plessy (black) jailed for sitting in "white's only" railroad car; "seperate but equal"

Lincoln's 10% Plan

When 10% of voters in southern states pledge oath of loyalty they can form new government and write a new state constitution banning slavery

Reconstruction act of 1867

demands new governments in 10 southern state; create 5 military districts under martial law; bans former confederate leaders from political office

Johnson impeached

he opposed congress's reconstruction plan

How did southern states legally restrict blacks from voting?

poll tax, literacy test, and grandfather clause

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