57 terms

Chemistry Review Vocabulary

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Density
The relative heaviness of objects, measured using the formula D=m/v.
Mass
A measure of how much matter is in an object. In science mass is measured in grams (g).
Volume
The amount of space that a substance or object occupies. In science the volume is measured in milliliters (mL) or cubic centimeters.
Ductile
A physical property of metals. Ductility is the ability to be drawn out into a thin wire. (Example - most wires are made from copper.)
Valence Electrons
The electrons found on the outermost energy level of an atom. Valence electrons are responsible for the reactivity of elements.
Reactivity
The state or power of being reactive or the degree to which a thing is reactive. This chemical property is controlled by valence electrons.
Periods
A row on the periodic table is called a period. Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels.
Atomic Mass
The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Groups
A column on the periodic table is called a group or family. Groups of elements have the same number of valence electrons therefore they react similar to each other.
Family (Families)
A column on the periodic table is called a group or family. Groups of elements have the same number of valence electrons therefore they react similar to each other.
Metals
An element found to the left of the zig-zag line on the periodic table. Metals are solid, malleable and ductile. They have luster, high densities and high melting points. They also conduct heat, sound, and electricity.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which its place in the periodic table.
Nonmetals
An element found on the right of the zig-zag line on the periodic table. Nonmetals are usually brittle solids or gases. They are dull in appearance and do not conduct heat, sound, or electricity.
Metalloids
These elements touch the zig-zag line and have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Luster
A shiny or reflective surface.
Malleability
The quality of a substance that can be shaped or hammered into something else without breaking.
conductivity
The ability or power to conduct or transmit heat, electricity, or sound.
dull
The state or quality of not being shiny.
brittle
The state or quality of breaking when pressed or hammered; not malleable.
rust
A reddish substance that forms on iron or some other metal usually when it comes in contact with moisture or air. Rusting is a chemical property of some elements.
ductile
The ability to be drawn (stretched) out into a thin wire.
tarnish
The tendency of some substances to dull the luster of (a metallic surface), especially by oxidation; or discolor. Tarnish is a chemical property of some elements.
chemical property
A property or characteristic of a substance that can only be observed during a reaction in which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is changed; cannot be observed without changing the substance.
physical property
A physical property is any property that is measurable; can be observed without changing the substance (e.g. color, boiling point, or hardness)
atom
the smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that element
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
dissolve
to become incorporated into a liquid so as to form a solution; this is an example of a chemical change
electrical charge
a form of charge, designated negative, positive, or neutral (without charge) that is found on the subatomic particles that make up all atoms
electron
a negatively charged subatomic particle of the electron cloud that is involved in the formation of chemical bonds
electron cloud
a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the nucleus of an atom in the electron cloud
element
a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances
mass number
the actual number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
mixture
substance made by mixing other substances together
molecule
a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound
compound
matter that is composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined
neutral
not having a positive or negative electrical charge
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no electrical charge found in the nucleus of an atom
nucleus
the positively charged, central portion of an atom where protons and neutrons are found
physical change
changes affecting the form of a chemical substance, but not its chemical composition; includes changes in state, like freezing, melting, and condensation
proton
a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
subscript
a number written below and to the right of a chemical symbol that shows the number of a specific type of atom present
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of the element
subatomic particle(s)
particles that are smaller than an atom; protons, neutrons, and electrons
energy levels
regions around the nucleus of an atom where electrons may be found
atomic mass units
is used to measure the mass of atoms or subatomic particles like protons, neutrons, and electrons
periodic table
a table showing the chemical elements arranged according to their atomic numbers
inert
chemically inactive; not reactive at all
alkali metals
very reactive metals found in group 1 (1 valence electrons) of the periodic table; including Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
halogens
most reactive nonmetals found in group 17 (7 valence electrons) of the periodic table; including F, Cl, Br, I, and At
noble gases
non-reative (inert) nonmetals found in group 18 (8 valene electrons) of the periodic table; including He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn
matter
anything that mass and volume
balanced equation
a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in which both sides of the equation contain equivalent number of atoms of each element. The mass and the charge must be balanced on both sides of the reaction.
precipitate (precipitant)
a solid substance that forms in a liquid from a chemical reaction
reactant
a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction
product
a substance produced during a chemical reaction
chemical change
reaction involving the rearrangement of the atoms of one or more substances and a change in their chemical properties or composition, resulting in the formation of at least one new substance with new properties
coefficient
a large number placed before molecules in the reactant and equation side of an equation to ensure that the equation is balanced

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