27 terms

Chapter 7 Study Questions

Deciding how an object most probably or most sensibly belongs to a concept, given the facts at hand, has been called___.
Relying on the degree of category membership
Clayton looking for a house wants brick but sees a wooden one with better floor plan, cheaper and nice school district, he picks wooden house. His decision making style involved the use of a ____.
compensatory model
Phonemes are grouped together to form______.
Stereotyped communications about an animal current state are called____.
The tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways is called _____.
Mental set
Linguistic determinism suggests that____.
One's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world
Each of the following is an effective strategy for becoming a better problem-solver EXCEPT___.
Develop functional fixedness
A heuristic strategy that combines hill-climbing and sub goals is ___.
Means-end analysis
Two groups are given a problem to solve. First group is given a spatial problem and other group has a time problem. The spatial group solved their problem faster because___.
visualized their problem & the time group didn't.
The smallest meaningful units in a language are __.
When showed a picture of a lion and bird, he knows the lion isn't a bird because it don't have wings, beak etc. He bases this on __.
Category membership
An excited toddler yells our "Give toy!" instead of saying "Daddy, give me the toy." This is an example of ___.
Telegraphic speech
Which of the following is not true of trial and error?
It is one of the most complex strategies for solving problems.
When a person thinks of a concept such as "bird", the person usually___.
Thinks of a prototype of a bird
The particular words and phrases that make up a sentence are is ___ structure.
Which of the following is not true?
Images give meaning to new experiences.
Pete wants to be rich. So he evaluate his investments every year, if they don't make him rich then he will chose better strategies. This is called__.
Trial and error
Rules of thumb that do not guarantee a solution but may help bring one within reach are called__.
Laboratory experiments suggest that animals have __.
some cognitive capacities
The first step in solving a problem is called problem____.
Nonhuman animals communicate primarily through ___.
According to Chomsky, people are able to go from surface structure to deep structure through process called ____.
Maureen is completing a chemistry project which must be written up using the metric system, but her beaker is scaled in ounces. The best solution strategy for her problem involves __.
There is a rule in the English language that adjectives come before nouns. This rule is an example of ___.
A mental model containing the most typical feature is a concept is called a ___.
Compensatory model
The rigid notion that old people who live in institutions have nothing to contribute to society often prevents them from optimizing what talents and skills they do have. This is an example of___.
Functional fixedness
The tendency to view outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome is called___.
Hindsight bias