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sharp, rough lava composed of broken lava blocks


Ways of getting rid of snow ex. melting, sublimation, calving ect,

Ablation Hollows

features in the surface of a glacier due to ablation

Alluvial Fan

Depositions of sediments on dry land.




the height of the largest seismic wave from the top of the wave to the dip of the wave


rocks that you can't see the grain size with the naked eye


anywhere underground that water can flow through


anywhere underground that water can't flow through


when 2 alpine glaciers in difference valleys wear down the land separating them into ridges. the top edge of that ridge

Artesian Well

a situation where a well enters the ground below the water table, and flows without a pump


a very fine powder that comes out of volanoes


the lower part of the mantle, which is what the crusts move upon

Barchan Dune

crescent shaped dunes with tips pointing downwind

Base Level

the lowest level that water can go, ussually a lake or the ocean




a crevasse that separates the flowing ice from the stationary ice at the head of a glacier


large tephra ejected as a solid, and is very angular


shallow depressions caused by deflation


large tephra ejected as slightly molten and looks stretched out

Bread Blocks




Capilary action

area where water can move up through tiny pores

Capilary firnge

the area of capillary action just above the zone of saturation

Chatter Marks/Crescentic Gouges

Small gouges or marks made by sudden abrupt movements of the glacier

Cinder Cone

a type of volcano that is small, has steep slopes, mild eruptions and made from loose material


a bowl shaped depression located at the head of a valley where a glacier used to be or is (area of accumulation)


type of _____? lava that forms when lava cools and the viscosity increases, and is so hot that is rattles around

Coil Lava

a type of pahoehoe lava that is forms like an eddie, and has many lobes


an arete that takes on a saddle shape



Composite cone


Cone of Depression

forms when water is being pulled out of the ground more than its being replenished

Continental Crust

thick, but less dense kind of crust

Continental Drift


Continental Glaciers

Large sheets of ice that have to be larger than 1 MIL square miles, and are shaped like an upside down bowl

Convergent Plate Boundaries

Boundary where plates move towards eachother in either a Oceanic-Oceanic, Oceanic-Continental, or Continental-Continental collision. Also form volcanic arcs.

Cordilleron Ice Sheet

One of the worlds 3 major ice sheets who's snow comes from the rocky mountains

Crag and Tail

a structure made from rock and sediment that first piles up the rock, and slowly drops of the sediment in a ramp

Crecentic Gouges

small gouges caused by uneven movement in the glacier


a crack in the ice due to uneven movement in the glacier

Cross Beds



the most outer, thin, rigid layer of earth


cone shaped depressions formed around dark objects which absorbs heat

Curie Point

temperature at which magma cools and the magnetic field becomes locked

Curtain of Fire


De Geer Moraine

moraines that are deposited in water

Deep-Ocean Trench

a formation formed at a divergent plate boundary underwater


amount of water that passes a point at a given amount of time

Divergent Plate Boundary

Boundary where plates move apart, where seafloor spreading occurs, and rifts & ridges form, also has mild volcanic eruptions

Drainage Basin



any material carried and deposited by a glacier


a sediment structure made by a glacier piling up debris, and slowly getting rid of it in a ramp



Elastic Rebound Theory

the concept where two plates are trying to move past each other, experience friction, and when the pressure is released, there is an earthquake

Entrail Lava

a type of pahoehoe lava that looks alot like guts

Ephemeral Stream



the point above the focus on the surface where the earthquake occurred.



Extrusive Volcanic

material that forms outside of the earths interior


a crack that leads down to a magma chamber


a flooded glacial valley, often where tidewater??? glaciers end

Flood Basalt


Flood Plain



point in earth where the earthquake takes place


smaller earthquake tremors after the main earthquake

Geothermal Gradient


Glacial Drift


Glacial Milk/Flour

when dust from glacial abrasion comes into a body of water and mixes with it

Glacial Striations

lines made in the bedrock by rocks being dragged by a glacier

Glacial Table

a boulder that protects the column of ice from heat

Glacial Valley/Trough

a u-shaped valley made from a glacier





Greenland Ice Sheet

One of the three major ice sheets thats snow comes from greenland


large striations in the bedrock from glaciers



Hanging Valley

when small tributaries intersect into a main glacier (often have waterfalls)


when 3 or more alpine glaciers wear down land between them to make a pyramid shaped point


a small splatter cone that forms on the surface of pahoehoe lava


areas of lava from risen mantle plumes...

Hydrologic cycle


Ice Cap

small continental glaciers

Ice Sheet

another name for a continental glacier

Ice Shelf

when a continental reaches the water




the process of water entering the ground

Inner Core

the most inner layer of the earth


qualitative measure of the degree of earthquake shaking based on damage.

Interior Drainage

a discontinuous pattern of streams in the desert that don't make it to the ocean

Internal Flow

the movement of ice inside a glacier

Intrusive Volcanic

material formed inside the earth


a glacial flood that forms when ice breaks down and floods a glacial lake


any deposit formed from water flowing over the surface of a glacier , usually forms a cone

Kame Delta

when sediments pile up at the end of a glacier after being put there by glacial melt water

Kame Terrace

when sediments form on the side of a glacier after being put there by melt water

Karst Topography


L waves

a type of wave that moves up and down, is the slowest, long, and is a surface wave that cause the most damage




flowing mixture of rock, debris and water that occurs when volcano debris mixes with water

Laminar Flow



pill sized tephra that are ejected from volcanoes

Lateral Moraine

moraines on the side of the glacier

Laurentide Ice Sheet

One of the worlds 3 major ice sheets which snow comes from canada and hudson


hot molten or semi-molten rock that has reached the surface

Lava Bench

unstable platforms that form by new lava flows that extend the old shoreline

Lava Trees

when lava surrounds a tree, and hardens around it

Lava Tubes

the way that lava flows underground

Left Lateral Fault

a type of strike slip fault??? where one block moves left relative to you


this occurs when saturated materials turn fluid


the crust and upper part of the mantle

Longitudinal Dune



hot molten, or semi-molten rock located underground


a concept displayed on a scale created by richter that measures the seismic waves and the amount of energy released

Medial Moraine

moraines in the middle of glaciers

Mohorovicic Discontinuity


Moment Magnitude



Debris on a glacier


a vertical channel of ice that is formed by flowing water

Natural Levee


Normal Fault

a type of transform fault where the headwall moves down

Normal Polarity


Nuee Ardente

an avalanche of hot gas, pumice and rock fragments


the peak of a mountain that sticks out of a glacier

Oblique Fault

a type of transform fault where the blocks move past each other diagonally

Oceanic Crust

thin, but dense kind of crust

Oceanic Ridge System



alternating bands of light and dark snow or ice

Outer Core


Outwash Plain


P waves

primary waves that push-pull, can travel through solids and liquids, and are the fastest


smoother lava that has a ropey surface which cools ussually in a series of lobes



Partial Melting


Peles Hair

volcanic glass that was blown away from the lava fountains

Peles Tears

small bits of molten lava that solidifies into glass pieces

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