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298 terms

Earth Science Finals

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aa
sharp, rough lava composed of broken lava blocks
Ablation
Ways of getting rid of snow ex. melting, sublimation, calving ect,
Ablation Hollows
features in the surface of a glacier due to ablation
Alluvial Fan
Depositions of sediments on dry land.
Alluvium
/
Amplitude
the height of the largest seismic wave from the top of the wave to the dip of the wave
Aphanitic
rocks that you can't see the grain size with the naked eye
Aquifer
anywhere underground that water can flow through
Aquitard
anywhere underground that water can't flow through
Aretes
when 2 alpine glaciers in difference valleys wear down the land separating them into ridges. the top edge of that ridge
Artesian Well
a situation where a well enters the ground below the water table, and flows without a pump
Ash
a very fine powder that comes out of volanoes
Asthenosphere
the lower part of the mantle, which is what the crusts move upon
Barchan Dune
crescent shaped dunes with tips pointing downwind
Base Level
the lowest level that water can go, ussually a lake or the ocean
Batholith
/
Bergshrund
a crevasse that separates the flowing ice from the stationary ice at the head of a glacier
Blocks
large tephra ejected as a solid, and is very angular
Blowout
shallow depressions caused by deflation
Bombs
large tephra ejected as slightly molten and looks stretched out
.
.
Bread Blocks
/
Caldera
/
Capacity
/
Capilary action
area where water can move up through tiny pores
Capilary firnge
the area of capillary action just above the zone of saturation
Chatter Marks/Crescentic Gouges
Small gouges or marks made by sudden abrupt movements of the glacier
Cinder Cone
a type of volcano that is small, has steep slopes, mild eruptions and made from loose material
Cirque
a bowl shaped depression located at the head of a valley where a glacier used to be or is (area of accumulation)
Clinkers
type of _____? lava that forms when lava cools and the viscosity increases, and is so hot that is rattles around
Coil Lava
a type of pahoehoe lava that is forms like an eddie, and has many lobes
Col
an arete that takes on a saddle shape
Competence
/
Composite cone
/
Cone of Depression
forms when water is being pulled out of the ground more than its being replenished
Continental Crust
thick, but less dense kind of crust
Continental Drift
/
Continental Glaciers
Large sheets of ice that have to be larger than 1 MIL square miles, and are shaped like an upside down bowl
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Boundary where plates move towards eachother in either a Oceanic-Oceanic, Oceanic-Continental, or Continental-Continental collision. Also form volcanic arcs.
Cordilleron Ice Sheet
One of the worlds 3 major ice sheets who's snow comes from the rocky mountains
Crag and Tail
a structure made from rock and sediment that first piles up the rock, and slowly drops of the sediment in a ramp
Crecentic Gouges
small gouges caused by uneven movement in the glacier
Crevasses
a crack in the ice due to uneven movement in the glacier
Cross Beds
//
Crust
the most outer, thin, rigid layer of earth
Cryconite
cone shaped depressions formed around dark objects which absorbs heat
Curie Point
temperature at which magma cools and the magnetic field becomes locked
Curtain of Fire
/
De Geer Moraine
moraines that are deposited in water
Deep-Ocean Trench
a formation formed at a divergent plate boundary underwater
Dike
/
Discharge
amount of water that passes a point at a given amount of time
Divergent Plate Boundary
Boundary where plates move apart, where seafloor spreading occurs, and rifts & ridges form, also has mild volcanic eruptions
Divide
/
Drainage Basin
/
Drift
any material carried and deposited by a glacier
Drumlin
a sediment structure made by a glacier piling up debris, and slowly getting rid of it in a ramp
Earthquake
/
Elastic Rebound Theory
the concept where two plates are trying to move past each other, experience friction, and when the pressure is released, there is an earthquake
Entrail Lava
a type of pahoehoe lava that looks alot like guts
Ephemeral Stream
/
Epicenter
the point above the focus on the surface where the earthquake occurred.
Esker
/
Evapotranspiration
/
Extrusive Volcanic
material that forms outside of the earths interior
Fault
//
Fissure
a crack that leads down to a magma chamber
Fjord
a flooded glacial valley, often where tidewater??? glaciers end
Flood Basalt
/
Flood Plain
/
Focus
point in earth where the earthquake takes place
Foreshock
smaller earthquake tremors after the main earthquake
Geothermal Gradient
/
Glacial Drift
/
Glacial Milk/Flour
when dust from glacial abrasion comes into a body of water and mixes with it
Glacial Striations
lines made in the bedrock by rocks being dragged by a glacier
Glacial Table
a boulder that protects the column of ice from heat
.
.
Glacial Valley/Trough
a u-shaped valley made from a glacier
Glacier
//
Gradient
//
Greenland Ice Sheet
One of the three major ice sheets thats snow comes from greenland
Grooves
large striations in the bedrock from glaciers
Groundwater
/
Hanging Valley
when small tributaries intersect into a main glacier (often have waterfalls)
Horn
when 3 or more alpine glaciers wear down land between them to make a pyramid shaped point
Hornito
a small splatter cone that forms on the surface of pahoehoe lava
Hotspot
areas of lava from risen mantle plumes...
Hydrologic cycle
/
Ice Cap
small continental glaciers
Ice Sheet
another name for a continental glacier
Ice Shelf
when a continental reaches the water
Inclusions
/
Inflitration
the process of water entering the ground
Inner Core
the most inner layer of the earth
Intensity
qualitative measure of the degree of earthquake shaking based on damage.
Interior Drainage
a discontinuous pattern of streams in the desert that don't make it to the ocean
Internal Flow
the movement of ice inside a glacier
Intrusive Volcanic
material formed inside the earth
Jokulhaups
a glacial flood that forms when ice breaks down and floods a glacial lake
Kame
any deposit formed from water flowing over the surface of a glacier , usually forms a cone
Kame Delta
when sediments pile up at the end of a glacier after being put there by glacial melt water
Kame Terrace
when sediments form on the side of a glacier after being put there by melt water
Karst Topography
/
Kipuka
/
L waves
a type of wave that moves up and down, is the slowest, long, and is a surface wave that cause the most damage
Laccolith
/
Lahar
flowing mixture of rock, debris and water that occurs when volcano debris mixes with water
Laminar Flow
/
Lapilli
pill sized tephra that are ejected from volcanoes
Lateral Moraine
moraines on the side of the glacier
Laurentide Ice Sheet
One of the worlds 3 major ice sheets which snow comes from canada and hudson
Lava
hot molten or semi-molten rock that has reached the surface
Lava Bench
unstable platforms that form by new lava flows that extend the old shoreline
Lava Trees
when lava surrounds a tree, and hardens around it
Lava Tubes
the way that lava flows underground
Left Lateral Fault
a type of strike slip fault??? where one block moves left relative to you
Liquefaction
this occurs when saturated materials turn fluid
Lithosphere
the crust and upper part of the mantle
Loess
/
Longitudinal Dune
/
Magma
hot molten, or semi-molten rock located underground
Magnitude
a concept displayed on a scale created by richter that measures the seismic waves and the amount of energy released
Mantle
/
Meander
/
Medial Moraine
moraines in the middle of glaciers
Melt
/
Mohorovicic Discontinuity
/
Moment Magnitude
/
Moraine
Debris on a glacier
Moulin
a vertical channel of ice that is formed by flowing water
Natural Levee
/
Normal Fault
a type of transform fault where the headwall moves down
Normal Polarity
/
Nuee Ardente
an avalanche of hot gas, pumice and rock fragments
Nunatak
the peak of a mountain that sticks out of a glacier
Oblique Fault
a type of transform fault where the blocks move past each other diagonally
Oceanic Crust
thin, but dense kind of crust
Oceanic Ridge System
/
Ogives
alternating bands of light and dark snow or ice
Outer Core
/
Outwash Plain
/
P waves
primary waves that push-pull, can travel through solids and liquids, and are the fastest
Pahoehoe
smoother lava that has a ropey surface which cools ussually in a series of lobes
Paleomagnetism
.
Pangea
.
Partial Melting
.
Peles Hair
volcanic glass that was blown away from the lava fountains
Peles Tears
small bits of molten lava that solidifies into glass pieces
Pentinents
extreme ablation hollows like sun cups, but solitary spikes
Perched Water Table
a pocket of water above the main water table that forms over an impermeable layer
Permeable
a layer that water can move through
Phaneritic
rocks where you can see the grains with the naked eye
Phenocrysts
large crystals that form in an area of fine crystals
Piedmont Glacier
A valley glacier that reaches the floor of the valley and spreads out
Plate
j
Plate Tectonics
i
Pleistocene Epoch
j
Pluton
i
Polar Wandering
the movement of the crust relative to the movement of the poles
Porosity
j
P wave
/
pyroclastic flow
...
pyroclastic material
/
receding/retreating
the melting of the snow is faster than snow being added, which makes the glacier melt away
CWM
another name for a cirque
reverse polarity
/
richter scale
/
rift
/
rift eruptions
/
right lateral fault
a type of strike slip fault??? where one block moves right relative to you
ropy lava
a type of pahoehoe lava that buckles onto itself
rouche mountenee
a rock structure that was formed by a glacier piling up debris into a ramp, and then finally dropping off
runoff
/
s waves
these waves move side to side, can only travel through solids, and is the second wave to come
seafloor spreading
/
seismic sea wave
/
seismogram
/
seismograph
device to measure seismic waves and detect the shaking of earths crust
serac
a tower of unstable ice that forms between crevasses
shadow zone
a zone where there are absences of P and S waves can't reach due to refraction
shield volcano
a type of volano that is made from hotspots, forms after a series of eruptions, and has mild eruptions
sill
//
skylights
the holes in the tops of lava tubes
sliding
the movement of a glacier over a surface due to the meltwater underneath it which reduces friction
snowline
the line of elevation where snow remains above it year round
spring
/
spur
the ridges made by the wearing down of land between glaciers
stratified drift
a type of drift that is deposited in water
stratovolcano
a type of volcano that is the classic looking volcano, that is very explosive, and has violent eruptions
striations
/
strike-slip fault
a type of transform fault where 2 blocks slide past eachother??
subduction zone
/
sun cup
bumps in the snow from uneven heating of a glacier
surface wave
seismic waves that travel only on the surface
suspended load
sediment that is carried by water
tarn
a small lake in a cirque
tephra
anything solid that comes out of a volcano
thrust and reverse fault
a type of transform fault where the headwall moves above the footwall
tidewater glacier
a type of valley glacier that ends in a body of water
till
a type of drift that is deposited on land
toe lava
a type of pahoehoe lava that spreads out into little sections like a tree
transform boundary
a boundary where plates move past eachother...
...
...
tree molds
when lava burns a tree, leaving an impression where the tree was
triangular facet
the triangle face left after a glacier cuts off a spur
trunkated spur
when the end of a spur is cut off by a glacier
tsunamis
when volcanic eruptions or earthquakes displace water, creating a large wave, aka harbor wave
valley glaciers
a type of glacier that is confined to valleys
varves
alternating bands of light and dark sediment
vent
the opening of a volcanic pipe to the surface
viscosity
a measure of a fluids resistance to flow
volcanic island arc
a chain of volcanoes made by hotspots and subduction zones with moving plates
volcanic neck
when a volcanic pipe hardens, and the volcano erodes away leaving this
volcano
an opening in the earths crust through which magma surfaces
water table
the surface of the zone of saturation
xenolith
/
yazoo tributary
/
zone of accumulation
area at the top of a glacier where snow pools up together
zone of saturation
zone where the soil always has water in it
zone of wastage
place at the end of a glacier where snow and ice are melted, or dropped off
Fracture Zone
n
Zone of Plastic Flow
the zone within a glacier, where there is movement within the ice
Tributary Glacier
a smaller glacier off of the main glacier
Potable Water
drinkable water
Impermeable
a layer that water can't move through
Potentiometric Level
the level that water could possibly get to
mohorovicic discontinuity
the boundary separating the crust from the mantle
Kiloea Iki?
a small side crater in a volcano?
sand boils
...
Elastic Rebound
the vibration of earth produced by the rapid release of energy
Seismic Moment Magnitude
a more accurate way of measuring an earthquake, which measures the ground motion more than Richter
Parabolic Dunes
scalloped rows of sand with tips pointing down wind
Transverse Dunes
long trough-separated ridges, oriented at right angles to the wind
Barchanoid Duens
scalloped rows of sand oriented at right angles to the wind
Star Dunes
sharp ridges coming from one spot
Longitudinal Dunes
long ridges of sand parallel to the wind
Abrasion
...
afterschock
...
belt of soil moisture
...
bloody bluff fault
...
body wave
...
cavern
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confined aquifer
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convection currents
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deficit
...
deflation
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desert oasis
...
draw down
...
ephemeral stream
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erratic
...
fault creep
...
fault scarp
...
felsic
...
granitic
...
firn/neve
...
fire house lava
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foot wall
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head wall
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glassy texture
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hard water
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hot spring
...
hydraulic conductvity
...
hydraulic gradient
...
joint
...
kettle
...
landslide
...
left lateral fault
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right lateral fault
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love wave
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mafic
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meander
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piezometer
...
modified meralli
...
oblique fault
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plasticity
...
playa lake
...
pluvial lake
...
reverse polarity
...
poromatic
...
pyomatic
...
pressure surface
...
recessional moraine
...
lag time
...
slab
...
slip face
...
spreading center
...
soda straws
...
surplus
...
drainage basin
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terminal moraine
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upwelling
...
usage
...
velocity
...
vesicular
...
water budget
...
water table
...
zone of aeration
...