Psychopathology Chapter 13

Name three characteristics of schizophrenia
1. Delusions and hallucinations
2. Disorganized speech and behavior
3. Inappropriate emotions
Eugen Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia as an "associative splitting" of the basic functions of personality led to the incorrect use of the term to mean __________.
split or multiple personality
What is the characteristic of the persecutory type of psychotic delusion?
Involves believing oneself (or someone close) is being malevolently treated in some way.
What is the most common type of hallucination experienced by psychotic individuals?
Auditory hallucinations
Describe alogia
Refers to the relative absence of speech
A person with alogia may respond to questions with brief replies that have little content and may appear uninterested in the conversation.
Define and describe catatonia.
Disorder of movement involving immobility or excited agitation. Catatonia is a description and categorization of schizophrenia and is included under the Latin term dementia praecox
What symptom is closely associated with catatonia?
Motor dysfunctions
One of the subtypes of schizophrenia is termed residual. Describe it.
Residual type of schizophrenia involve people who may have had at least one episode of schizophrenia but who no longer manifest major symptoms. Although they may not suffer from bizarre delusions or hallucinations, they may display residual or "leftover" symptoms, such as negative belief, or they may still have unusual ideas that are not fully delusional. Residual symptoms can include social withdrawal, bizarre thoughts, inactivity, and flat affect.
Describe brief psychotic disorder.
is characterized by the presence of one or more positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech or behavior lasting 1 month or less. Individuals regain their previous ability to function well in day-to-day activities. This disorder is often precipitated in extremely stressful situations.
What do research studies that focus on genetic factors in schizophrenia show concerning identical twins?
You have the greatest chance (48%) of getting schizophrenia if your identical monozygotic twin has it, a person who shares 100% of your genetic information.
Name three conditions that may be prerequisites for a person to develop schizophrenia.
a. Mild physical abnormalities
b. Poor motor coordination
c. Mild physical and social problems
d. ideas of reference, magical thinking, and illusions
Give three statistical data that are accurate regarding schizophrenia.
-chronic; difficulty functioning in society
-are likely to have delusions outside realm of reality
-likely to experience difficulty through life
-the lifetime prevalence rate is equivalent for men and women- .25-1.5% in the general population
What role do genes play in causing schizophrenia?
a. Genes are responsible for making some people vulnerable to schizophrenia *you can be a "carrier" for schizophrenia)
b. There is no one gene that causes this vulnerability but rather thousands of gene variances combined to produce vulnerability
In terms of a particular emotional communication style known as expressed emotion (EE) researchers have shown that schizophrenic patients were more likely to relapse if what two conditions are present
a. High levels of criticism (disapproval), hostility (animosity), and emotional overinvolvement (intrusiveness) expressed by families
b. High expressed emotion in a family (3.7 times more likely to relapse than a patient with a family that has low expressed emotion)
One of the attempts at improving patient compliance in regard to taking antipsychotic medication involves the use of ____________.
injectable medications
What is the name of the technique that uses wire coils that repeatedly generate magnetic fields which pass through the skull to the brain?
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Name three independent living skills programs that teach some schizophrenic patients to function better in the community
-Symptom management (identifying warning signs of relapse, managing warning signs, coping with persistent symptoms, avoiding alcohol and street drugs)
-medication management (obtaining info about antipsychotic medication, knowing correct self-admin and evaluation, identifying side effects of meds, negotiating medical issues with health care providers)
-individual skills training, family intervention, and vocational rehabilitation
There are cross-cultural differences in the treatment of schizophrenia. What two types of treatments that a patient in China would probably receive in addition to antipsychotic medication
a. Acupuncture
b. Herbal medications
Discuss some of the causative factors of schizophrenia, including genetic influences, neurotransmitter imbalances, prenatal viral exposure, and psychological stressors.
a. Twin studies
b. excess dopamine
c. prenatal exposure to influenza
d. stressful life events