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62 terms

Science Final Exam Vocabulary

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Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
Substance
matter with a composition that is always the same
Compound
a substance containing atoms of two or more different elements chemically bonded together
Mixture
matter that can vary in composition
Heterogeneous Mixture
a mixture in which substances are not evenly mixed
Homogeneous Mixture
a mixture in which two or more substances are evenly mixed but not bonded together
Dissolve
to form a solution by mixing evenly
Physical Property
a characteristic of matter that you can observe or measure without changing the identity of the matter
Mass
the amount of matter in an object
Density
the mass per unit volume of a substance
Solubility
the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure
Physical Change
a change in the size, shape, form, or state of matter that does not change the matter's identity
Chemical Property
the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more new substances
Chemical Change
a change in matter in which the substances that make up the matter change into other substances with different chemical and physical properties
Concentration
the amount of a particular solute in a given amount of solution
Solid
matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume
Liquid
matter with a definite volume but no definite shape
Gas
matter that has no definite volume and no definite shape
Viscosity
a measurement of a liquid's resistence to flow
Surface Tension
the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
Vapor
the gas state of a substance that is normally a solid or a liquid at room temperature
Kinetic Energy
energy due to motion
Temperature
the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a material
Thermal Energy
the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the particles that make up an object
Vaporization
the change in state from a liquid to a gas
Evaporation
the process of a liquid changing to a gas at the surface of the liquid
Condensation
the change of state from a gas to a liquid
Sublimation
the process of changing directly from a solid to a gas
Deposition
the process of changing directly from a gas to a solid
Kinetic Molecular Theory
an explanation of how particles in matter behave
Pressure
the amount of force per unit area applied to an object's surface
Boyle's Law
the law that pressure of a gas increases if the volume decreases and pressure of a gas decreases if the volume increases, when temperature is constant
Charles's Law
the law that volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, if the pressure is constant
Atom
a small particle that is the building block of matter; the smallest piece of an element that still represents that element
Electron
a negatively charged particle that occupies the space in an atom outside the nucleus
Proton
positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron
a neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom
Electron Cloud
the region surrounding an atom's nucleus where one or more electrons are most likely to be found
Nucleus
the region in the center of an atom where most of an atom's mass and positive charge are concentrated
Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom of an element
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Mass Number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Average Atomic Mass
the average mass of the element's isotopes, weighted according to the abundance of each isotope
Radioactive
any element that spontaneously emits radiation
Nuclear Decay
a process that occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus changes into another more stable nucleus by emitting radiation
Ion
an atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained valence electrons
Periodic Table
a chart of the elements into rows and columns according to their physical and chemical properties
Group
a column on the periodic table
Period
a row on the periodic table
Metal
an element that is generally shiny, is easily pulled into wires or hammered into thin sheets, and is a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy
Luster
the ability of a substance to reflect or absorb light at its surface
Ductility
the ability of a substance to be pulled into thin wires
Conductivity
the ability of a substance to transfer heat or electricity
Malleability
the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets
Alkali Metal
an element in group 1 on the periodic table
Alkaline Earth Metal
an element in group 2 on the periodic table
Transition Element/Transition Metal
an element in groups 3-12 on the periodic table
Nonmetal
a element that has no metallic properties
Halogen
an element in group 17 on the periodic table
Noble Gas
an element in group 18 on the periodic table
Metalloid
an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals
Semiconductor
a substance that conducts electricity at high temperatures but not at low temperatures