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123 terms

Ch16 - Skin

Chabner's Language of Medicine 9th Edition
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Abscess
A cavity containing pus surrounded by inflamed tissue; usually the result of localized infection.
Acne
Chronic papular and pustular eruption of the skin with increased production of sebum and keratin.
Actinic keratosis
Thickened area of the epidermis associated with aging and skin damage due to sun exposure.
Adipocyte
Fat cell.
Albinism
Inherited absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.
Albino
Individual lacking normal body pigment (melanin).
Alopecia
Baldness.
Alopecia areata
An idiopathic condition in which hair falls out in patches.
Anhidrosis
Absence of sweating.
Apocrine sweat gland
One of the large dermal exocrine glands located in the axilla and genital areas. It secretes sweat that, in action with bacteria, is responsible for human body odor.
Atopic dermatitis
Inflammation of skin (rash and intense itching) that tends to occur in patients with a family history of allergic reactions.
bacterial analyses
skin test where samples of skin are examined fore presence of microorganisms. Fluids or pus talken for examination
Basal cell carcinoma
Skin cancer arising from cells in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Basal layer
Lower layer of cells in the epidermis.
Bulla, bullae
Large blister.
Burns
Injury to tissues caused by heat contact.
Callus
Hard, thickened area of skin occurring in areas of the body exposed to friction or pressure.
Cellulitis
Diffuse, acute inflammatory infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain and swelling.
Cicatrix
Scar tissue.
Collagen
Protein found in skin and connective tissues.
comedo
blackhead
Crust
Collection on the skin of dried sebum and cellular debris; scab.
cryosurgery
using freezing liquid nitrogen to destroy tissue
Curettage
Scraping of material from the skin or from the wall of a cavity.
Cuticle
Small band of skin at the base of a nail.
Cyst
Thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
Decubitus ulcer
Inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony part of the body; pressure ulcer; bedsore.
Dermabrasion
Treatment for removal of superficial scars or wrinkles on the skin using sandpaper-like material.
dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin
Dermatologist
Specialist in the study (diagnosis and treatment) of skin disorders.
dermatomycosis
superficial fungal infection of the skin
Dermatophytosis
Fungal infection of the skin.
Dermatoplasty
Surgical repair of the skin.
Dermis
Middle layer of the skin.
Diaphoresis
Profuse sweating.
Dysplastic nevi
Numerous abnormal moles with irregular borders, indistinct margins, and mixed coloration; often precursors of malignant melanomas.
ecchymosis
Bleeding into the skin; bruise.
Eccrine sweat gland
Water-producing exocrine gland in the skin.
Eczema
Chronic dermatitis of unknown etiology, marked by redness, blisters, scales, and scabs. With erythematous and papulovesicular lesions.
Electrocautery
Use of a needle or snare heated by electric current to destroy or burn tissue (removal of warts, polyps).
Electrodesiccation
Destruction of tissue by burning with an electric spark
Epidermis
Outer layer of the skin.
Epidermolysis
Loosening of outer layer of the skin with formation of large blisters (bullae).
Erosion
Wearing away or loss of epidermis
Erythema
Condition of redness of the skin.
Erythematous
Pertaining to redness of the skin.
Exanthematous viral disease
Rash (exanthem) of skin due to viral infection; measles (rubeola) and chicken pox (varicella) are examples.
Fissure
Groove or crack-like sore.
Fungal tests
Scrapings from skin lesions are sent to a laboratory for culture and microscopic examination for evidence of fungal growth.
Gangrene
Death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply.
Hair follicle
Tubular sac that holds the hair fiber.
Ichthyosis
Hereditary condition in which the skin resembles fish scales and is dry, rough, and scaly.
Impetigo
Inflammatory bacterial skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions. Contagious pyoderma
Integumentary system
Skin and its accessory organs (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands).
Kaposi sarcoma
Malignant tumor of skin and blood vessels; often associated with AIDS. Dark blue-purple patches form on the skin.
Keloid
Enlarged scar on the skin
Keratin
Hard protein found in hair, nails, and the epidermis layer of skin.
Keratosis
Excessive development of hard, keratinized tissue on the skin.
lesion
area of abnormal tissue anywhere on or in the body. May be caused by disease or trauma
Leukoderma
Areas of skin that lose their pigment and become white; vitiligo.
Leukoplakia
White plaques on mucous membranes and surfaces of the body.
Lipocyte
Fat cell.
Lipoma
Benign tumor of fatty tissue.
Liposuction
Removal of adipose (fatty) tissue with a suction pump device.
Lunula
Semicircular white arch near the root of the nail.
Macule
Pigmented spot on the skin; freckle.
Malignant melanoma
Cancerous skin tumor often arising in pre-existing moles (nevi).
Melanin
Black pigment produced by melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Melanocyte
Cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin.
melanoma
malignant skin tumor
Mohs micrographic surgery
Microscopically controlled excision of skin cancers. Thin layers of malignant tissue are removed and examined under a microscope. Used to treat basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and other tumors
Mycosis
Any disease caused by a fungus.
Nevus, nevi
Mole (pigmented lesion of the skin).
Nodule
Solid, round or oval, elevated skin lesion more than 1 cm in diameter.
Onycholysis
Separation of the nail plate from the nail bed in fungal infections or after trauma.
Onychomycosis
Fungal infection of a nail.
Papule
Small, solid elevation of the skin, less than 1 cm in diameter.
Paronychia
Inflammation and swelling of the skin folds around a nail.
Paronychium
Soft tissue surrounding the nail border.
Petechia, petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin.
Pilonidal cyst
Sac of hair in the sacral region (above the cleft in the buttocks).
Pilosebaceous
Pertaining to hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
Polyp
Mushroom-like benign growth extending on a stalk from the surface of a mucous membrane.
Pruritus
Itching.
Psoriasis
Chronic, recurrent dermatosis characterized by scaly, dull red or pink patches covered by silvery gray scales.
punch biopsy
surgical instrument to core out tissue by rotation of a sharp ciruclar edge
Purpura
Bleeding into the skin; ecchymoses and petechiae.
Purulent
Forming or containing pus.
Pustule
Small elevation of the skin containing pus.
Pyoderma
Skin disease with formation of pus.
Rhytidectomy
Plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging.
Rubella
Exanthematous viral disease; German measles.
Rubeola
Exanthematous viral disease; measles.
Scabies
Contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus (itching).
Scleroderma
Chronic and progressive disease of the skin with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue.
Sebaceous cyst
Sac-like cavity filled with a collection of yellowish, cheesy sebum and epithelial debris.
Sebaceous gland
Oil gland in the dermis layer of the skin.
Seborrhea
Condition marked by excessive secretion from sebaceous glands.
Seborrheic dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin with excessive secretion from sebaceous glands. Yellow brown -gray greasy scales
Sebum
Oily secretion from sebaceous glands in the skin.
shave biopsy
tissue is excised using a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin
Skin biopsy
Procedure to remove a suspected malignant lesion and send it to pathology laboratory for microscopic examination.
Skin test
Reaction of the body to a substance by observing the results of injecting the substance intradermally or applying it topically to the skin.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Skin cancer that develops from squamous epithelium.
Squamous epithelium
Flat, scale-like layer of cells in the epidermis or outer layer of the skin.
Steatoma
Collection of sebum in a cyst or sac-like formation.
Stratified
Arranged in layers.
Stratum corneum
Outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of flattened, keratinized cells.
Stratum, strata
A layer.
Subcutaneous layer
Pertaining to the third layer of the skin, under the epidermis and dermis (cutaneous layers). The subcutaneous layer contains fatty tissue.
Subungual
Pertaining to under a nail.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in joints - butterfly rash
Tinea
Infection of the skin caused by a fungus; tinea corporis (ringworm) and tinea pedis (athlete's foot) are examples.
Trichomycosis
Fungal infection of hair, especially in the area under the arm (axilla).
Ulcer
Open sore on the skin or mucous membranes of the body.
Urticaria
Acute allergic reaction in which red, round, elevated swollen areas called wheals appear on the skin. Pruritus (itching) may be intense.
Varicella
Exanthematous viral disease marked by itchy red rash that develops into blisters and pustules and then scabs; chicken pox.
Verruca, verrucae
Small benign growth (wart) in the skin; caused by a virus.
Vesicle
Small blister, containing clear fluid, on the skin.
Vitiligo
Patches of white, unpigmented skin surrounded by areas of normal skin; leukoderma.
Wheal
Round elevation in the skin with a pale, whitish area surrounded by redness; hives.
Xanthoma
Soft, yellowish, round nodule found on the eyelids; xanthelasma.
Xeroderma
Dry skin.