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112 terms

anatomy

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conjunctiva
the highly contagious bacteria known as "pinkeye" is caused by bacteria or viral irritation of the:
sclera
the fibrous outermost tunic seen anteriorly as the "white of the eye" is the:
cornea
the transparent central anterior portion of the sclera through which light enters the eye is called the:
choroid
the middle coat of the eyeball that contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in the eyeball is the:
retina
the layer of the eye that contains rods and cones
iris
the pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the:
blue, green, and red
the three sets of color receptors within the retina that are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light are:
fovea centralis
the greatest visual acuity(sharpness) is found at the:
scleral venous sinus(canal of Schlemm)
the aqueous humor of the eye is reabsorbed into venous blood through the:
vitreous humor
the gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the:
lens
what structure of the eye focuses light on the retina:
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
the order of parts that light passes through as it enters the eye
mechanoreceptors
receptors stimulated by the physical forces that cause movement of fluid or vibration within the body are:
tympanic membrane
sound waves entering the external auditory canal hit the eardrum, aka the:
spiral organ of Corti
hair cells that function as hearing receptors are located within the:
malleus, incus, stapes
the pathway of vibrations through the ossicles from the tympanic membrane, or eardrum, to the oval window is:
inner ear
equilibrium receptors are located
middle ear
an ear infection following an illness such as a cold has passed from the throat through the auditory tube to the:
incus
the auditory ossicle called the "anvil" is also called the:
vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, membranous labyrinth
parts of the inner ear
semicircular canals
dynamic equilibrium receptors are found in the:
vestibule
the portion of the bony labyrinth responsible for static equilibrium is the:
dynamic equilibrium
gustatory hairs are to taste as olfactory hairs are to:
bitter, salty, sour, sweet
the primary taste sensations:
urethra
urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the:
filtration
the nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called:
transitional epithelium
the bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of:
Bowman's capsule
the enlarged, cup-shaped closed end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is called the:
slightly aromatic, sterile, more dense than water, and typically contains ammonia
true statements about urine under normal healthy conditions:
external urethral sphincter
the voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscle at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor called the:
micturition
the process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or:
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is:
500 mL
the average adult bladder is moderately full with_______(how much) of urine within it.
ureter
the tube connecting the renal hilus of the kidney to the bladder is the:
cortex
most nephrons are located within the renal:
regulates blood volume, converts vitamin D from its inactive to its active form, disposes of metabolic waste products, and manufactures urine
kidney functions
ureter, urethra, kidney, and urinary bladder
organs found in the urinary system
plasma
the matrix of blood is called:
leukocytes and platelets
in a centrifuged blood sample, the buffy coat between the formed elements and the plasma contains:
4,000-11,000
there are an average of _________ WBCs per cubic millimeter of whole blood
megakaryocytes
platelets are fragments of multinucleate cells called:
hematopoiesis
blood cell formation is called ___________ and occurs in red bone marrow
100-120 days
the average functional lifespan of an RBC is:
erythropoietin
the hormone that regulates the rate of erythrocyte production is called:
hemostasis
the series of reactions that stop blood flow following a cut is called:
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation
the proper sequence of hemostasis
1 minute
blood normally clots in approximately:
embolus
a clot that breaks away from a vessel wall and circulates freely within the bloodstream is called an:
hemophilia
one kind of blood clotting disorder
calcium
the ion essential for blood clotting is:
over 50%
severe shock occurs with blood loss of:
agglutination
the process whereby the binding of antibodies to antigens causes RBCs to clump is called:
O
the most common blood type in the US population
AB
the universal recipient has blood type:
A and B antigens
ABO blood groups are based on the presence of:
cross matching
compatibility testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipients' serum is called:
7.35 and 7.45
normal pH of blood is between ____ & _____
water
blood plasma is largely:
leukopenia
an abnormally low WBC count is called:
hemocytoblast
all formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a:
"bleeder's disease"
hemophilia is commonly called:
mobilizing body defenses against stressors, growth and development, regulating cellular metabolism, and maintaining electrolyte balance
major processes controlled by hormones
hormones
the chemical messengers of the endocrine system are known as:
goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from a deficiency of dietary iodine is called:
iodine
the element necessary in the diet for proper thyroid function is:
melatonin
the pineal gland produces
stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones
what do tropic hormones do:
pituitary gland
the hypothalamus is most closely associated with the:
thyroid hormone
the body's major metabolic hormone is called:
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
hormones that regulate calcium levels in the body:
epinephrine
the "fight-or-flight" response triggers the release of:
a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose
insulin causes:
most hormones
negative feedback mechanisms regulate:
thyroid
the gland that's primarily responsible for body metabolism
ovaries
the gland that's the major producer of female hormones
pituitary
the gland that has both glandular and nervous tissue associated with it is:
parathyroid
the glands that act as antagonists to the thyroid gland
pancreas
the gland that produces insulin and glucagon
hypothalamus
the producer of hormones released by the posterior pituitary
adrenal
the glands that produce steroids and catecholamines
testes
the gland that produces testosterone
pineal
the gland that produces melatonin
larynx, nose, trachea, pharynx
the conducting passageways of the respiratory system
both the hard and soft palate
the nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by:
lightens the skull, helps to moisten the air, act as resonance chambers for speech, produce mucus
functions of the paranasal sinuses
epiglottis
the flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the:
towards the throat to be swallowed or spat out
cilia of the trachea that beat continually propel contaminated mucus:
the narrower portion of each lung is called the apex, the left lung has two lobes, the bases rest on the diaphragm, the right lung has three lobes
four facts about the lungs
simple diffusion
exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by:
surfactant
the lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called:
pulmonary ventilation
air moving in and out of the lungs is called:
internal respiration
the gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systematic capillaries is called:
vital capacity
the respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the:
500 mL
the amount of air exchanged during normal quiet breathing is about:
bicarbonate ion
most carbon dioxide is transported within blood plasma as:
oxyhemoglobin
oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the blood to form:
increased carbon dioxide in the blood
the most important chemical stimuli leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is:
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal:
pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
the small intestine extends from the:
absorption of nutrients
the primary function of the small intestine is:
cecum, appendix, colon, and rectum
subdivisions of the large intestine:
32
number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is:
pancreas
the accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is the:
liver; gallbladder
bile is produced by the _______ but stored in the ________.
chemical digestion
the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called:
segmentation
the process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called:
absorption
transport of digested end products from the lumen GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluid is called:
starch
the first nutrient to be chemically digested is:
esophagus
an alimentary segment that has no digestive function:
gastrin
the hormone responsible for causing the stomach to release pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid is:
3-6 hours
the journey of chyme through the small intestine takes:
some of the B vitamins, vitamin K, ions, water
things absorbed by the human large intestine: