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the ability to do work or cause change in matter.

Energy Transfer

movement of energy from one place to another.

Electrical Circuit

a closed-looped path of wire through which an electrical current flows.

Electrical Current

the movement of a charge or the flow of electrons in a piece of matter that conducts electricity.


matter that does not conduct heat very well.


the process of transferring heat from light waves


radiation that we can see.


the bouncing of heat or light off of an object.


the bending of light as it moves from one material to


the energy moving particles have.


any material that can be used to satisfy a need.

Natural resources

a resource found in nature such as plants, animals, air, soil, water, minerals, and fossil fuels.

Nonrenewable resources

a resource that cannot be replaced once it is used up or that would take millions of years to replace.

Renewable resources

a resource that we won't run out of or that can be replaced in our lifetime.


the use of less of something to make a supply last longer.


anything that dirties or harms the environment

Kinetic energy

the energy an object gains by moving.

Potential Energy

the energy of position or stored energy.


the transfer of heat between objects that are touching.


the transfer of heat by a moving liquid or gas.

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