21 terms

Sociology Chapter 6

Social Control
the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
the act of going along with peers-individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
Informal Social Control
social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles and ridicule
Formal Social Control
Social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators and employeers
Governmental social control
Control Theory
a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group of society
a label used to devalue members of certain social groups
a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
Victimization survey
a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime
White-collar crime
illegal acts committed by affluent, respectable individuals in the course of business activities
term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
Anomie theory of deviance
Merton's theory of deviance as an adapation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment or both
Cultural Transmission
a school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
Differential Association
a theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
Social Disorganization Theory
the theory that attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions, such as as familly, school, church and local government
labeling theory
an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
Societal-reaction approach
another name for labeling theory
Differential justice
differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups