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134 terms

History exam review

this has all the stuff on the packet
STUDY
PLAY
seeing things
take off your blinders. appreciate others point of view
point of view
this is how a person sees something based on WHO he is. education, family, nationality, experiences, religion, and a host of other things can contribute to this.
frame of reference
how a person sees events based on WHERE he is. a man on the dock has a different recollection of a ship leaving than does a man on the ship
themes
things that motivated individuals to act throughout history. must show specific person doing a specific action
land
includes water and natural resources
power
three sources...votes, force, wealth in the US only votes and wealth are legit
religion
deals with morality and immortality
morality
see what's right or wrong
immortality
The quality of the spiritual human soul whereby it survives the death of the body
exploration
to travel to little known or unknown places to learn about them
the Age of Sail
that period of time when sailing ships were the driving mover of the development of society
advances
that which moves the world forward
barriers to carriers
oceans became highways in the Age of Sail
Christopher Columbus
genoese sailor, working for spain, he discovered the New World in 1492
Prince Henry the Navigator
a portuguese prince who started a school for navigation. he brought together the finest sailors, ship builders, navigators, chart makers, etc
Portugal
brazil
spain
western SA, central america, NA, caribbean coast, florida
england
eastern coast
france
canada, LT
holland
NY
Sweden
new jersey
Aztec
mexico
maya
Guatemala, Yucatan Peninsula,
Inca
peru
culture areas
geographic areas where humans live a similar life style (plains, SW, eastern woodland)
relations with france
french men married indians and lived among tribes. their children were raised with loyalty more for the tribal leaders than for the French king
relations with great britain
the british kept separate from the indians and suffered through many wars and rebellions because of this. only pennsylvania
clash of cultures
when 2 cultures come together things will change for each. in the case of conquest, the conquered must learn the way of the conquerers.
Jamestown
1607-the first permanent English in N America
John Smith
the first true leader in English N America. his rule was those who don't work, don't eat. this set the tone for the Land of Opportunity
Plymouth
1620-first english settlement started for religious reasons
Pilgrims
separatists who had left the Church of England and were being persecuted by James I. they chose to come to the New World to avoid more trouble.
The Mayflower
the ship that the Pilgrims rode to the New World
the mayflower compact
an agreement by those on the Mayflower to make and obey laws for their colony; this was the first self-rule by American colonists
religion in New England
prime motivator for the region
Puritanism
a sect within the Church of England that wanted to see a less fancy, more devout church
Roger Williams
Puritan dissenter who was banished for his radical ideas-Indians pay for their land; 2. church and state should be separate; 3. keep the government out of an individual's religious decisions. he ran off to found Providence, later found Rhode Island
Salem Witch Trials
puritan judges executed a number of people and animals in order to purge the settlement of Salem of witches. When a particularly devout woman was accused of witchcraft, people realized that the trials had run out of control and that innocents had been executed. this was another black mark agains the puritan ministers
the great migration
Jonathon winthrop led 20,00 puritans across to the New World between 1630 and 1640 to avoid persecution in their native England
colonization
to found or establish settlements in order to exert control over a geographic area
types of colonies
royal, self-governing, proprietary, corporate, trusteeship
13 colonies
Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, N. Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia
Land of Opportunity
in the New World a person's worth and position in society were not determined by birthright
apprentice
a boy who, by contract, was taught a trade by a master craftsmen in exchange for food, shelter, and clothing.
indentured servant
a european, already skilled, who contracts to work a certain number of years in exchange for the cost of a voyage to America
slave
a person who is owned by another and all their labor belongs to their master
rights
things that cannot be taken away, except through due process of law
DR of Kings
the European political philosophy that teaches God gave all power to a single person, the king, who may give or take any rights as he sees fit
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property and governments are created by the consent of the people in order to protect these rights
rights versus privileges
a right can't be taken away except through due process of law. a privilege requires permission from another
France v. Great Britain
after holland and sweden left, spain was busy with her empire and russia was far away, so the fight was between france and GB
4 wars
between spain and france
french and indian war/7 years war
was decisive
prelude to revolution
with the french threat removed, the british gov decided that the time was right to micromanage their american empire. the british colonists had, however, been governing themselves since early 1600s
proclamation line of 1763
in order to avoid costly indian wars, the british government decided that colonists couldn't locate west of the top of the Appalachian Mtns.
Stamp Act
in order to raise money to pay the war debt for the four wars agains France, the British levied a tax on American colonists only. This first put a tax on all legal documents
Taxation without representation is tyranny
without the ability to elect representatives to parliament, the British colonists took up this slogan to express their claim that unless they had a say in government, the government would have no right to levy taxes on them
Reaction is a boycott
the british gov. had promised wealth through trade to merchants who had paid additional taxes during the F & 1 war. this produced the opposite effect and those merchants, who could vote, saw to it that the Stamp Act was repealed
Stamp Act Congress
this was the first time the colonists worked together
townshend acts
this internal tax was a second attempt to tax the colonists alone
external v internal tax
external are added on to the final cost of an item. internal is already in the final cost of the product
Boston Massacre
when some british soldiers panicked and killed 5 colonists, sam adams and paul revere turned it into a propaganda victory
boston tea party
dressed as indians, the sons of liberty threw tea into the boston harbor, rather than let it land and the tax be paid
coercive acts
the british set of laws designed to punish the colonists for the boston tea party. Quebec Act, Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act, Boston Port Act, and Massachusetts Government Act
too much punishment
instead of alienating the radicals in Boston, these acts were so severe that they brought the other colonies in on the side of Boston
Sam Adams
the great agitator of the revolution, he started committees of correspondence and the songs of liberty
patrick henry
the great orator, "GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!"
thomas paine
pamphleteer, "common sense" and "the crisis"
propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
first continental congress
the colonists came together to have rebellious representatives at a central location
first continental congress
the colonists came together to have rebellious representatives at a central location
second continental congress
more radical than the FCC it ran the Revolution
the shot heard around the world
the first shot of the revolution, fired on Leington Green. First time a colony had risen against a mother country and issued in the Age of Revolution
The revolutionary war
to gain independence from G.B. France was a great ally
george washington
1st pres. commander of continental army, model of civic virtue who gave up throne of US
Cornwallis caught at Yorktown
the final battle of the revolution, cornwallis was surrounded by 2 american and 1 french army. he was forced to surrender
treaty of paris 1783
ended AR
independence
we became a separate country
articles of confederation
first gov of US
weak gov
it couldnt solve a nation's problems
Northwest ordinance
only good law passed during the AOC period, it provided a way for new and equal states to be made.
Constitution of US
our present system of gov. provided for a constitutional republic
philadelphia convention
originally called to fix AOC, this is where Constitution was written
James Madison's plan
3 branches/system of checks and balances
executive
to enforce laws
legislative
write laws
judicial
interpret laws
senate
equal number/2 per state
HOR
by population at least one per state
political parties
citizens who band together based on common ideas/ GW didn't want these
Democratic-Republican
Thomas Jefferson
Feared central government
democratic / faith in common man
federalists
alexander hamilton / John Adams
strong central government
aristocratic
census
physical count of the people of the US taken every 10 years in order to provide for the election of representatives
Louisiana Purchase
bought from France by Thomas Jefferson, it doubled the size of US
Lewis & Clark
send by TJ to record the flora and fauna of the newly purchased area
industrialization
more technologically advanced, productive manufacturing
power loom
sam slater brought the secret of making sloth faster to the US
cotton gin
eli whitney figured a way to clean cotton accidentally making slavery profitable again
steam engine
robert fulton designed a machine that could pull the weight of all manufactured goods
transition from farm economy
people started moving into cities for employment
canals
man made waterways that connect 2 bodies of water
improved roads
plank, macadams
Missouri Compromise
restricted growth of slavery in LT
Frederick Douglass
led many slaves up to the north
characteristics of money
portable, generally accepted, divisible, stores value, measures value
definition of money
anything generally accepter in exchange for goods or services, or in payment of debt
Jackson v the Bank
jackson's opponents convinced the 2nd bank of US to apply 4 years early for a 20 year extension on its charter, so that it could be used as a campaign issue. when jackson won he killed off the bank early by removing all gov. money
pet banks
these were the frontier banks in the S and W where AJ deposited the money he had taken out of the Bank of the US. His political supporters were from those areas and he wanted them to benefit.
Inflation
too much money chasing too few goods, money is devalued and prices rise
specie
gold/silver especially coin
Latter Day Saints
new American religion
Mormons
members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
Joseph Smith
in the early 1800s in NY he had a vision of God leading him to a set of golden tablets upon which was written the Book of Mormon, another book of the Bible. Jesus supposedly visited the New World. Smith later went on to evoke polygamy and other unpopular tenets. He was killed in eastern IL, along with his brother Hyrum
Brigham Young
2nd leader of Mormon Church, he led thousands to their new home in the basin of great salt lake in what is now Utah
texas
originally spanish, then part of Mexico
Texas war for Independence
not a US war, this is Mexicans v Texans
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
dictator of Mexico on occasions, he was a great organizer but poor general
sam houston
leader of Texans and first president of the republic of texas
Jim bowie/davey crockett
texan heroes of the alamo
the alamo/goliad/San Jacinto
3 big battles of war
Mexican-American War
us v Mexico in border dispute war
disputed boundary
between Nueces river and Rio grande
training for the generals on Civil war
Grant Lee Jackson Sherman etc
Winfield Scott/Z. Taylor
2 leading US generals, Taylor ahd ambition and was ordered to hold. Scott took Mexico City.
Treaty gives US southwestern US
treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Gadsen Purchase
several years later, the us bought another silver of northern mexico completing the present boundary of us
education of women
from care of the home to female education...Mary Lyon and Sarah Pierce
life in the mills
from great conditions to wage slaves because of competition cost-cutting
compromise of 1850
tried to avoid conflict through diplomacy
Kansas-Nebraska Bill
popular sovereignty used to get Stephen Douglass votes
Bleeding Kansas
civil war between Free-Soldiers and Border Ruffians, introduces John Brown
Senator Sumner attacked
beaten by Rep. whose uncle had been verbally attacked
Dred Scott Decision
slave brought to free area, supreme court decision ended the idea of free states
Civil War
in general terms