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Honors American History Final Study Guide (Civil Rights Portion)

freedom rides

a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961

Martin Luther King, Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Federal Marshalls

members of the United States Marshall Service, the oldest federal law enforcement agency.

March on Washington

held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Equal Employment Opportunity

the equal right of all citizens to the opportunity to obtain employment regardless of their gender, age, race, country of origin, religion, or disabilities


a special assignment that is given to a person or group

Freedom Summer

In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.

Governor George Wallace

Governor of Alabama; pledged to oppose integration and to prevent enrollment of blacks at state university; won popularity for his views.

Voting Rights Act

1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote

Great Society

1964, LBJ's policies of fighting poverty and racial injustice


a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older


a federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them (welfare system)

Stokely Carmichael

head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization

black power

A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.

Nation of Islam

a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans

Malcolm X

Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.

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