Technical Writing Final: Design and Graphic (Chapters 11 and 12)
Terms in this set (48)
Design principle that states that if two items appear close to each other, the reader will interpret them as related to each other.
Design principle that says that you should consciously line up text and graphics along a real or imaginary vertical axis so that the reader can understand the relationships among elements.
Design principle that says that you should format the same kind of information in the same way so that readers can recognize consistent patterns.
Design principle that says that the human eyes is drawn to differences in appearance between two items. This principle explains why black print is easier to read against a white background.
Design principle that considers the weights of elements and their arrangement on the page. For example, pictures weigh more than words.
proximity, alignment, repetition, contrast, balance
What are the five design principles that should be considered when designing a technical document?
Size, paper, bindings, accessing aids
What are the four elements that should be considered when designing the entirety of a print document?
chunking, queuing, filtering
What are the three principles of learning theory that can help you design effective pages?
Principle of learning theory that states that people understand information best if it is delivered to them in small units rather than all at once.
Principle of learning theory that refers to creating visual distinctions to indicate levels of importance. Bigger type and boldface suggest more importance. Another visual element is alignment; designers start more important information closer to the left margin and indent less-important information.
Principle of learning theory that refers to the use of visual patterns to distinguish various types of information. Introductory material might be displayed in larger types, notes might appear in italics, another typeface, and a smaller size.
The arrangement of white space and space devoted to text and graphics.
a "map" on which you plan where the text, the graphics, and the white space will go.
a rough drawing that shows how the text and graphics will look on the page
the area of the paper with no writing or graphics; the space between two columns of text, the space between text and graphics, and margins.
Shorter lines for less reader fatigue, more information, repetition and reinforcement of visual patterns
List the three advantages of a multi-column design
the study of type and the way people read it
typefaces, type families, case, type size, line length, line spacing, justification
List a few of the elements of typography
Category of typefaces used for headings
Category of typefaces used for the body text
A series of fonts which consists of variations on the basic style, such as italic or boldface.
the amount of white space between lines or between a line of text and a graphic
the alignment of words along the left and right margins
Straight lines used to exploit the principles of alignment and proximity
Rules on four sides that exploit contrast and repetition
Background shading used to exploit contrast and repetition
A brief comment on the main discussion that is located in the margins. Exploits principles of contrast and repetition
Quotes that are pulled from the text and emphasized with type size or face. Exploits principles of contrast and repetition.
demonstrate logical and numerical relationships, communicate spatial information, communicate steps in a process, save space, reduce cost of documents for international readers
List the five benefits that graphics offer
serves a purpose, simple and uncluttered, presents manageable amount of information, meets readers' formal expectations, is clearly labeled
List the five characteristics of an effective graphic
Serves a purpose
Characteristic of an effective graphic that states you shouldn't include a graphic unless it will help the readers understand or remember information.
Simple and uncluttered
Characteristic of an effective graphic that states you should use charts that are easy to understand and not overly complicated.
Presents manageable amounts of information
Characteristic of an effective graphic that states you should not try to present too much information at once. Use several simple graphics rather than a single confusing one.
Meets readers' expectations
Characteristic of an effective graphic that states you should design graphics that people already know how to read.
Characteristic of an effective graphic that states that graphics should be given a unique, clear, and informative title. Fully label columns of a table and the axes of lines of a graph.
Convey large amounts of numerical data in an organized, easy to access way, and they are often the only way to present several variables for a number of items. Present data or facts for analysis and comparison.
Can communicate numerical values but are better at showing comparisons among different items or the same items over time.
A combination of words and graphics used to present factual data about a subject in a visually interesting way.
Show how a quantity rises and falls over time, emphasizing a trend.
Show how the whole is divided into parts represented as a pie cut into pieces.
A visual metaphor that uses symbols to represent relationships among items or their properties.
Highlights the phases of the work with a schedule, showing how a project will meet its goals over time.
A list of items each preceded by a check box.
Shows the various stages of a process or procedure. Also useful for summarizing instructions.
Illustration of instructions that use a branching metaphor
Unmatched for reproducing visual detail. You should only show the heads and shoulders of people and pictures of objects should be close and uncluttered.
Image of what appears on a computer monitor to show users what their screen will look like as they perform tasks with the device.
simplified visual representations of objects. They can focus the readers' attention on desired information better, highlight information that might be obscured by bad lighting or angles, and are sometimes easier to read and understand.