13 terms

Protein Synthesis

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

RNA
A type of nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose. Used in protein synthesis.
mRNA
Form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
tRNA
Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
rRNA
makes up ribosomes, like a protein factory
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
anticodon
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
amino acid
Building blocks of protein, monomer of a polypeptide
protein
A molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
RNA polymerase
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
nucleotide
"A building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group"
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
central dogma
theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins