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Chapter 13

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
the biological or psychological requirements for the well-being of an organism
conditions of arousal or tension within an organism that motivate the organism
complex, unlearned behaviors that are present throughout a species
an internal balance or equilibrium that is achieved through adjustments of the nervous system
according to Abraham Maslow, the self-motivated striving to reach one's potential
a condition characterized by excessive body fat
states of feeling that involve physical arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
Opponent-process theory
according to Solomon, the idea that an intense emotion often is followed by its opposite
Stimulus motives
desires for increased stimulation
Sensory deprivation
a state in which there is little or no sensory stimulation
Achievement motivation
the desire to persevere with work and to avoid distraction in order to reach personal goals
extrinsic rewards
something external given in response to the attainment of a goal, such as good grades
intrinsic rewards
internal rewards, such as self-satisfaction, that are given in response to the attainment of a goal
cognitive consistency
the state in which a person's thoughts and behaviors match his or her beliefs and the expectations of others
balance theory
the view that people have a need to organize their perceptions,
cognitive-dissonance theory
the theory that suggests that people make attitudinal changes to reduce the tension that occurs when their thoughts and attitudes are inconsistent with their actions
the desire to join with others and to be a part of something larger than oneself