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a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior


the biological or psychological requirements for the well-being of an organism


conditions of arousal or tension within an organism that motivate the organism


complex, unlearned behaviors that are present throughout a species


an internal balance or equilibrium that is achieved through adjustments of the nervous system


according to Abraham Maslow, the self-motivated striving to reach one's potential


a condition characterized by excessive body fat


states of feeling that involve physical arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience

Opponent-process theory

according to Solomon, the idea that an intense emotion often is followed by its opposite

Stimulus motives

desires for increased stimulation

Sensory deprivation

a state in which there is little or no sensory stimulation

Achievement motivation

the desire to persevere with work and to avoid distraction in order to reach personal goals

extrinsic rewards

something external given in response to the attainment of a goal, such as good grades

intrinsic rewards

internal rewards, such as self-satisfaction, that are given in response to the attainment of a goal

cognitive consistency

the state in which a person's thoughts and behaviors match his or her beliefs and the expectations of others

balance theory

the view that people have a need to organize their perceptions,

cognitive-dissonance theory

the theory that suggests that people make attitudinal changes to reduce the tension that occurs when their thoughts and attitudes are inconsistent with their actions


the desire to join with others and to be a part of something larger than oneself

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