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45 terms

Mechanical systems

Unit 4 Vocabulary
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lever
a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum
Fulcrum
the pivot about which a lever turns
Effort Force
the force applied to a machine when a machine is used to do work.
Load
a quantity that can be processed or transported at one time
Effort Arm
the part of a lever on which an effort force is applied
Load Arm
distance between the load force and fulcrum
Class 2 Lever
A lever in which the load is between the fulcrum and the effort.
Class 3 Lever
A lever in which the effort is between the fulcrum and the load
Joules
Unit of Energy
Inclined Plane
a simple machine for elevating objects
Input Work
the work done on a machine as the input force acts through the input distance
Output Work
the work done by a machine as the output force acts through the output distance
Mechanical Advantage
the ratio of the force exerted by a machine to the force applied to it
Speed
distance traveled per unit time
Ergonomics
The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)
Winch
lifting device consisting of a horizontal cylinder turned by a crank on which a cable or rope winds
Radius
the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere
Wheel and Axle
hoist so arranged that a rope unwinding from a wheel is wound onto a cylindrical drum or shaft coaxial with the wheel
Gear
a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion
Gear Train
A group of 2 or more gears
Driving Gear
The gear that is providing force to turn the other one. Often, this gear is attached directly to the motor axle.
Driven Gear
The gear that is receiving the force to produce motion.
Sprocket
tooth on the rim of gear wheel
Speed Ratio
The relationship between the speed of rotations of a smaller gear and a larger gear, can be calculated by dividing the number of driver gear teeth by the number of follower gear teeth.
Pulley
a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope
Fixed Pulley
A pulley attached in position above a load to be lifted.
Moveable Pulley
attached to the object being lifted and it decreases the amount of force needed to lift a load
Block and Tackle
pulley blocks with associated rope or cable
Compound Pulley
Two or more pulleys working together
Kinetic Energy
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its motion
Potential Energy
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position
Transmission
the act of sending a message
Efficiency
the ratio of the output to the input of any system
Force
force into or from an action or state, either physically or metaphorically
Area
a part of a structure having some specific characteristic or function
Pressure
the force applied to a unit area of surface
Pascals Law
a gas or liquid exerts an equal force in all directions in a closed container
Hydraulic Lift
Mechanical system that raises heavy objects.
Closed System
system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
Hydraulic Systems
use the force of a liquid in a confined space, apply two essential characteristic of fluids - their in compressibility and their ability to transmit pressure
Pneumatic Systems
Transportation system used in many health care facilities for specimens and paper-based documentation.
Valve
control consisting of a mechanical device for controlling the flow of a fluid
Pump
a mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction
Subsystem
a system that is part of some larger system