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200 terms

APHG Final Exam

This is just a consolidation of Ben's quizlet. I just put them into one and corrected some spelling errors cause im OCD like that.
STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following was not an important factor that shaped the development of the major models of urban land use?
the basic / non-basic ratio of workers
Most large cities in Southeast Asia were usually developed by European colonialists and are centered on...
ports
Hoyt's model of urban land use differed from the models developed by E.W. Burgess in that the Hoyt model...
shows the city developing in a series of sectors, not rings.
Medieval cities in Europe usually had what characteristic in common?
protective walls
Most African cities actually have how many CBD's?
3
Ancient towns and cities owed much of their success and growth to certain site advantages. Which of the following was not one of these advantages?
good supply of coal and iron
Which of the following changes usually occurs as a city grows?
the ratio of non-basic to basic workers becomes larger
Which of the following is a primate city?
Paris, France
Which of the following is now the least urbanized and the most rapidly urbanizing realm of the world?
Subsaharan Africa
The core of a city is called the...
CBD
Urban places in the ancient world were...
exceptions in an overwhelmingly rural society
After 1970 new suburban downtowns (edge cities) were spawned in the outer city of Los Angeles, with their leading concentrations...
near key freeway intersections
The very early developing agricultural societies were...
egalitarian
In core area cities, the practice of buying up land and rehabilitating deteriorated housing, which results in the raising of land values in a neighborhood is called...
gentrification
Where did the first urban developement originate?
Southwest Asia
Gated communities have _________ as their chief objective.
safety
New York's Times Square and Berlin's Potsdamer Platz are examples of giant media reshaping cities into...
spaces of consumption
The decline in density and the spread of cities associated with the building of freeways in the second half of the 20th century has been referred to as...
urban sprawl
The multiple nuclei model of urban structure developed by Harris and Ullman arose from the idea that _______ was losing its place as the dominant position in the metropolitan city.
the CBD
Which of the following countries is least urbanized.
China
Marxist geographer David Harvey is one of the strongest critics of ________ , the privatization of the public space and loss of "character" in neighborhoods.
new urbanism
In a model of urban hierarchy, the population of a city or town is inversly proportional to its rank in the system (ex. if largest city is 4 million people, the 2nd largest city will be 2 million people, then the 4th largest city will be 1 million). this is called...
rank-size rule
Which of the following best describes the hierarchy of urban developments?
hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis
What city were the Concentric Zone Model and the Sector Model based on?
Chicago
In the Latin American city, where are the homes of the most impoverished people?
on the outermost zone or peripheral fringe
A hinterland reveals the ________ of each settlement.
economic reach
The U.K. has established greenbelts around certain cities to prevent what?
urban sprawl
What term came back into use to describe the spatial components of the metropolis of the late 20th century?
urban realms
The influx of population from rural to urban areas in peripheral areas or semi-peripheral areas find housing in...
shanty towns
The focal point of the Southeast Asian city is the...
old colonial port
According to the Multiple Nuclei Model, what develops at the outskirts of the core cities?
edge cities
If cities in the poorer parts of the world share a common characteristic, it may result from...
an absence of enforced zoning regulations
Paris and Mexico City are many times larger than the next largest city in the in their respective countries. Their disproportional sizes illustrates...
the concept of primate city
Rome created a huge urban system. The integration of the Roman Empire was greatly facilitated by a...
transportation system
As the distance increases from the center of a city, houses begin to be built farther apart and the number of people per land unit goes down, this phenomenon is known as...
the density gradient
The Pentagon in Washington DC is a good example of a...
symbolic landscape
In Burgess's Concentric Zone Model the zone of transition became...
deteriorated with more CBD encroachment
Mexico City and Sao Paulo are examples of...
mega cities
Comparing Luanda, Angola to a suburb of Tokyo, one is struck by the fact that the urban morphology reflects the fact that angola lacks a _________ working class.
middle
Which feature of ancient urbanization was not present in the Nile River Valley hearth?
defensive walls
Human communities have existed for 10000 years, but some did not start to grow into larger places until about ________ years ago.
8000
The layout ot a city, the physical form and structure, is reffered to as...
urban morphology
The core area suburbs are experiencing a process of the tearing down of existing suburban homes and the building of very large, standardized looking homes known as...
McMansions
The response of the urban system of the American South and Southwest to the influx of migrants over the past three decades conforms with predictions of central place theory. This is called the __________ phenomenon.
Sunbelt
What one characteristic links megacities?
each city has a population over 10 million
Ancient cities were not large by today's standard. The cities of Mesopotamian and the Nile Valley probably had populations of...
10,ooo - 15,ooo oowoooo woowooo wooowowowooooowoo oo oo o o wo owooowoo owowo o o wo oowoowoo woooowo woooowooooowooo oo oo o o wo owoowooo owoo o o ooowoooo wooowoo wooowooooowoooo oo owo o o wo owoowooo owoo o o ooowoowoo wooooo wooowooowooooowo oo oo o o wo owooowoo owoow o o ow
Peter Muller's analysis of suburbanization indicated that suburbs were...
evolving into a self-sufficient urban entity with its own economic and cultural components
The relative location of a city reffers to its...
situation
What do cities in most countries in the developing world have in common?
urban areas are ringed by shantytowns
Segregation in the United States was reinforced by the financial practice known as...
redlining
Mountain ranges tend to harbor areas of great cultural complexity and tensions that are called...
shatterbelts
What is a mixed economy?
one that mixes characteristics of a command economy with those of a market economy
Which of the following is least likely to be studied by a political geographer?
time-distance decay
All of the following are good examples of multinational states except...
Iceland
What ultimately proved to be the undoing of the Monarchical Absolutism and its system of patronage during Europe's rebirth?
growing economic power of merchants
Which of the following political organizations of space evolved most recently in world history?
nation-states
Conflicts between the South American countries of Chile and Bolivia have centered on the issue of...
water access
The first major experiment in the regional supranationalism was undertaken in Europe before WW2 and involved the three countries...
Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands
The promotion of the acquisition of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets during Europe's rebirth was called...
mercantilism
The study of the spatial and territorial dimensions of power relationships within the global political-territorial order is called...
geopolitics
Which of the following is not a generally accepted criterion for the existence of a liberal democracy...
military participation in the political system.
In its application to the European Union, which state faced criticisms by some of its opponents for not being "European enough" to gain admission?
Turkey
Which of the following is a forward capital?
Putrajaya, Malaysia
The present number of countries and territories in the world is around...
200
The current Canadian governmental organizational structure is best classified as...
federal
At the global scale political geographers study the spatial manifestations of political processes expressed in the organization of territories with permanent population, defined territory and a government. These spatial units are called...
states
According to Mackinder's Heartland theory, the British Empire would not last and would be replaced by a...
land-based power
The European state idea spread throughout the world through...
European colonialism
The first political geographer who studied the state in detail was Friedrich Ratzel who postulated that the state resembles a biological organism. His organic theory identified __________ as a state's essential life-giving force.
space
Participating in the United Nations serves the useful purpose of committing states to...
international standards of behavior
Which of the following supranational organizations has the power to establish peace keeping corces in 'hot spots' around the world?
the UN
According to world systems analysis which of the following countries would be best classified as being in the global economic periphery?
Colombia
To try to reduce the calls for revolutionary seccessions from Canada, the Canadian parliment has given Nunavut regions more autonomy, or local control. This situation best represents the geographic concept of...
devolution
The Marshal Plan was a post WW2 endeavor by the US to economically revive...
Europe
The boundaries of modern states are important symbols of...
sovereignty
The US and its allies entered the Vietnam conflict in part to prevent communists from gaining control of the Eurasian periphery, because that control would have led to domination of the world according to some geopolitical thinkers of the time. This justification is most closely associated with which of the following geographic concepts?
Rimland theory
The most important reasons that Singapore is one of the most prosperous states in the world is that it...
has a good relative location
Minority / majority districting is a relativity new form of...
Gerrymandering
Decolonization in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia took place mainly...
during the second half of the 20th century
______________ is an example of a core country which never had a classical colonial power.
Singapore
One of the powerful impacts of colonialism was the construction of global order characterized by great differences in...
economic and political power
The boundaries of independent African states were drawn at the Berlin Conference and were essentially drawn...
arbitrarily
Integration is a process that allows states to gain political, economic, and social power by pooling their...
sovereignty
The political boundary dividing much of India from China is classified as...
physical (or natural)
War broke out between Mexico and the US in the mid 19th century in areas where many US citizens had settled and in the 1930's Germany invaded Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic now) and Poland, areas with German minorities. These examples of expansionism illustrates the concept of...
Irridentism
Sikhs in India, Muslim Palestinians in Israel, and Kurds in Iraq are all considered...
stateless nations
The Peace of Westphalia...
marked the beginning of the modern state of Europe
Which of the following is most likely to be a centrifugal force that negatively affects a nation-state?
strong separatist movements
Which country is not a permanent member to the UN security council?
Germany
The UN is not a world government, but in recent years individual states have asked the UN to do a number of different things, the most expensive of which is...
peacekeeping
Egypt and Ethiopia have developed a tense relationship over control of water from the Nile River. This conflict is best described as which type of boundary dispute?
allocational
The median-line principle is used to establish boundaries set by...
water
Modern day experiments with the transfer of some important powers from central governments to sub-governments encourages the process of...
devolution
Which of the following concepts is most basic to the study of politics?
spatial force
The League of Nations was created in 1919 as the first international organization that would include all nations of the world. Its success was dealt a serious blow by the failure of which country to join?
the United States
Which conclusion can best be drawn from the above three examples?
climate greatly influences the types of biomes found in different regions
Which of the following generalizations can be made from the above diagram?
altitude has an important impact on the kind of crops grown.
Which of the following morphological classifications best describes Slovakia?
elongated
The shape of South Africa, above, is an example of a...
perforated state
The countries shaded gray on the above map are...
the newest members of the European Union
Most scholars believe that seed cultivation (First Agricultural Revolution) occurred in...
the Fertile Crescent
The major exporter of corn in the world market today is...
US
The long-lot survey system was developed with the major intent of...
giving more people access to water transportation
Which of the following types of agriculture is most solidly based in horticulture?
Mediterranean agriculture
The size of milkshed areas around major cities has grown in recent years primarily because...
of the invention and use of refrigerated rail cars and trucks
Despite variations around the world, a village is defined by the occupation of its inhabitants in...
farming, herding, and fishing
Before the intervention of Europeans, the societies practicing subsistence farming were quite equal because...
the land was held in communal ownership
According to the Von Thunen model, the most important determinant of the location of agriculture production is the...
distance between the consuming center and the production site
Which of the following is not an example of subsistence agriculture?
hunting and gathering
According to the Koppen-Geoger climate classification, the UK has a...
humid temperate climate with no dry season and a cool summer
The most common worldwide pattern of agricultural settlement is...
nucleated settlement
All of the following statements about agriculture in commercial economic systems are true except...
in response to low farm prices and crop surpluses, it is being replaced by mid-latitude intensive subsistence farming and shifting cultivation
Intensive subsistence agriculture is characterized by...
high yields per unit of cultivated land
The most prevalent rural residential pattern in the world's agricultural areas is...
nucleated
All of the following are characteristics of modern industrial agriculture except...
predictable market prices from time of planting till harvest
A common criticism of agribusiness is that it has...
discouraged people in poorer countries from raising a variety of nutritious crops
An important reason why land plots tend to be smaller in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe is that in Southern Europe...
primogeniture is less frequently practiced
Which of the following areas does not have a mediterranean type climate?
southern Florida
The first plants domesticated in Southeast Asia, which included taro, yam and tree crops, were raised according to the practices of...
vegetative planting
The farming practices of enclosure and crop rotation were important innovations of the...
Second Agricultural Revolution
Which is not an example of a primary economic activity?
corn flake production
The form of agriculture that refers to a particular climate is...
Mediterranean
Wherever practiced, subsistence farming is oriented toward...
risk minimization
Biotechnology is most often applied to modern agriculture by the use of...
genetically altered crops
The lingering effect of colonial times on modern global agricultural patterns is reflected by the fact that people in poor countries...
still produce mostly raw materials for trade to richer countries
The supply curve indicates that as the price of a good increases...
more of it will be offerred for sale
Which commodity would be found closest to the market town in von Thunen's model?
milk
Which of the following characterizes modern commercial agriculture?
farm sizes are quite large
A form of subsistence agriculure in which fields are rotated after short periods of crop production is...
shifting cultivation
Intertillage is most commonly associated with...
shifting cultivation
Which of the following countries has most benefited from the Green Revolution?
China
Desertification has been a major consequence of overgrazing and overplanting of lands in...
Subsaharan Africa
Which of the following is the best general description of farming practices today in developing countries?
almost all farmers still practice intensive subsistence agriculture
In areas of shifting cultivation the population...
cannot have a high density
Geographer Lee Liu studying the spatial patterns of agriculture in parts of China found soils in intensively used fields near villages were....
overused and of poor fertility
All of the following statements about shifting or swidden cultivation are true EXCEPT...
low initial yeilds are followed by steadily increasing productivity that peaks at about ten years
The Green Revolution...
increases output through use of high-yeilding crop varieties and altered management practices
Which of the following fields of study has been most directly shaped by Von Thunen's model?
location theory
All of the following statements about nomadic herding are true except that it...
is increasing in importance as a the population dependent on it increases
Which of the following is not characteristic of intensive subsistence agriculture?
plots of land are usually large
Which of the following agricultural activities is widespread in the Northeastern US and Northwestern Europe?
dairying
The diagram above illustrates an important scientific theory. What does this theory claim?
millions of years ago, Earth's continents formed one giant continent
Use the following to answer question 43. Mexico City in central Mexico is closer to the equator than Houston, Texas. Its average summer temperatures are cooler than Houston's. What best explains this?
Mexico City has a higher elevation than Houston
The shaded areas on the map above are part of a region known as the world's...
breadbasket
Use the following chart to answer questions 45 and 46. The diffusion of crops, other plants, and animals illustrated on the chart above was called...
the Columbian Exchange
The diffusion identified in #45 above first began to impact world trade patterns during the...
16th century
The map above shows major regions of the world where...
shifting cultivation is common
The type of agriculture most associated with the area shaded gray on the map is...
livestock ranching
Questions 49 and 50 are based on the following chart. Which of the following countries is most clearly an example of a post-industrial society?
United Kingdom
Which of the following has the largest percentage of farmers in its workforce?
Nigeria
Which of the following labels Rostow's developement in order?
traditional society, preconditions to takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, age of mass consumption.
Southeast Asia cities have promoted economic growth through what primary means?
western development and trade
The country with the largest coal reserves is...
the US
In peripheral countries it is not unusual for hotels in tourist areas to be owned by...
multinational corperations
The transfer of an automobile from a train to a truck at a distribution point is a good example of a...
break of bulk
Economic development in some African states is hampered by...
corrupt governments
The most important cost in Weber's least cost theory is...
transportation costs
A large component of survival in countries with a low per capita GNP is...
the informal economy
The US developed which statistic as a measure of the development in the late 1970's to try to quantify economic development?
Human Development Index
Theories which hold that economic disparities are built into the global economic system are referred to as...
structuralist theories
Special Economic Zones are most common in which country?
China
Mexico has established export processing zones with special tax, trade and regulatory arrangements for foreign firms. this phenomena is reffered to as...
Maquiladoras
Which of the following is not a primary industrial region of the world today?
South Asia
Industrialization occured along an axis from Northern France through North Central Germany to Czech Republic and South Poland. This axis correlates with _________ as a locational factor.
coalfields
This cartel, established is the primary group for setting oil prices...
organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC)
The country with the largest oil reserves in the world is...
Saudi Arabia
Which of the following countries is not one of the four Asian Tigers?
Vietnam
What major factor has led the four Asian Tigers to economic success?
trading goods
Countries in which tier of the world economy have high birthrates and death rates and low life expectancy at birth?
periphery
Core area agriculture is characterized by...
all of the above
Company A orders 1000 pounds of sugar at a cost of $1 per pound. Company B purchases 500 pounds of sugar at $2 per pound. This is an example of what concept?
variable cost
Even if the Gross National Product (GNP) index is used to measure the well-being of a counntry, it will fail to show...
the distribution of wealth
Which of the following is used in determining the Human Developement Index for ecomonic development?
literacy rate
In 2005, China, Japan, the United States, Russia and South Korea were the five top producers of...
steel
Which of the following would be most likely to be critical of modernization theory?
A dependency theorist
Which of the following is the best example of a labor-intensive industry?
a textile manufacturer
Most of the ethanol (a form of biomass) in the United States comes from which biodegradable commodity?
corn
The increase in time and cost with distance is referred to as...
friction of distance
According to the core-periphery model of economic development, all of the following are peripheral areas of Europe EXCEPT...
Southeastern England
Which of the following factors would most likely increase the cost of transportation the most?
weight, come back here. I want you to bone me so hard that I quiver on your kock and you come all over my titts
The Ruhr industrial area is connected to its port by...
Rhine River
Alfred Weber identified three factors that determine the location of industries: transportation, labor costs and...
agglomeration
Fast, flexible production of small lots with outsourcing around the world is referred to as...
Post-Fordist
The prinicipal structuralist alternative to Rostow's model of economic develpoement is known as...
dependency theory
Establishment of government quotas on imports (eg. cotton shirts or steel) to the US has led to...
a shifting of the production from country to country in the periphery and semi-periphery
Which continent uses nuclear power for a greater percentage of its total power output than any other continent?
Europe
Which of the following is a measure of social, rather than economic development of a country?
literacy rates
Which country possesses the greatest natural gas reserves?
Russia
____ give loans to poor people, preferable women, to encourage development of small businesses.
micro credit programs
Twenty thousand nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh constitute what can be called...
parallel state
Which of the following correctly identifies a theorist with his theory?
Harold Hotelling / locational interdependence theory
A sock manufacturer in China needs support services, such as surface and ocean transportation, and access to telephone and electricity. These supporting services are all examples of...
infrastructure
Which does not make up a portion of Colombia's GNP?
drug trafficking
In terms of today's global ecomomy, which area would be considered the resource frontier of the world?
Southwest Asia
What is the major drawback to buring lignite coal?
it cannot produce enough heat for many blast furnaces
The United States and many other more developed countries rely on what natural resource for the majority of their electricity production?
coal
The word "development" implies...
progress
Just-in-time delivery refers to what?
the process of producing food in time to meet the demand for the food
Which organization is headed by a US citizen, is headquartered in Washington DC and is charged with combating poverty in peripheral countries?
World Bank
Which of the four classifications of industry must locate where the resources are found?
primary