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AP Psych Unit 9 (Disorders and Treatments)
Terms in this set (119)
A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation or behavior.
Disturbed, or DYSFUNCTIONAL behaviors are MAL ADAPTIVE- they interfere with normal day to day life.
Departing from usual or accepted standards, especially in social or sexual behavior.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: Extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
There is controversy over whether is normal high energy or disordered behavior. Too many kids are diagnosed with it.
The concept that diseases, in this case, psychological disorders, have physical cases that can be diagned, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
A mental illness (psychopathology) needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and treated through therapy, which may include time in a psychiatric hospital.
Biological (evolution, genetics, brain structure), psychological (stress, trauma, learned helplessness), and social cultural influences (expectations, roles, definitions of normality and disorder) interact to produce specific psychological disorders.
There American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Contains diagnostic labels and descriptions that provide a common language and shared concepts for communication and research.
People think that it has become too detailed and extensive.
Criticisms on the use of diagnostic labels
People think that the DSM creates preconceptions with bias perceptions of the labeled person's past and present behavior.
The legal label "insanity" raises moral and ethical questions about whether soccer should held people with disorders responsible for their violent actions.
How many people suffer, or have suffered, from a psychological disorder? Is poverty a risk factor?
Psychological disorder rates vary, depending on the time and place of the survey. Ranges from 5 tot 25 percent.
Poverty is a risk factor. Conditions and experiences associated with poverty contribute to the development of psychological disorders. Some disorders can even drive people into poverty.
International Classification of Diseases ( ICD-10 )
The standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes (Similar to DSM 5).
Classify individuals. Diagnostic labels allow clinicians and researchers to assume that all members of a group are generally homogeneous in the underlying nature of the illness, regardless of whether there is some variability in the presentation of symptoms or circumstances surrounding illness onset. In other words, diagnostic labels distinguish patient groups by a set of definable boundaries.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive (inappropriate) behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack.
An anxiety disorder make by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Intense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such.
A fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide open places, where one has felt loss of control and panic.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thought (obsessions) and or actions (compulsions).
Obsession- Repetitive thoughts
Compulsion- Repetitive actions
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
A deeply distressing or disturbing experience.
People say its exaggerated.
People generally do not develop PTSD after a traumatic event. Only 1/10 women and 1/20 men develop PTSD.
Post traumatic growth
Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crisis.
After a person goes though a traumatic experience, they often gain an appreciation for life, changed priorities, meaningful relationships...
Fear conditioning (Classical and operant)
People could be conditioned to associate different objects, events, or places to anxiety.
Stimulus generalization- A person who gets attacked by a fierce dog later gains a fear of all dogs.
Observational Learning and Anxiety
We learn fear though observing other's fears (Cognitive).
Cognition's relation to Anxiety Disorders
Another cognitive influence on feeling of anxiety. Our interpretations and irrational beliefs can also cause feelings of anxiety.
Biological relation to Anxiety Disorders (Natural Selection, Genes, & the Brain)
Natural selection has led to our fears- we fear things that are most likely to be dangerous. What we fear today is a product of our ancestors struggle for survival.
It is easy to condition and hard to extinguish fears of such "evolutionary relevant" stimuli.
Even modern fears relate to evolutionary explanations.
Genes- we are all born with different genes so we respond differently to different things.
Brain- People with disorders have elevated activity (over-arousal) in certain areas. Ex. The ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX, a brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors, is especially hyperactive for those with OCD.
*bunch of missed terms
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and mania.
Major Depressive Disorder (And 5 Signs)
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure.
You must have 5 of these signs to be classified as depressed (according to the DSM-5):
1. Depressed mood most of the day.
2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities most of the day.
3. Significant weight loss or gain when not dieting, or significant decrease or increase in appetite.
4. Insomnia or sleeping too much
5. Physical agitation or lethargy
6. Fatigue or loss of energy
7. Feeling worthless or excessive/inappropriate guilt.
8. Problems in thinking, concentrating, or making decisions.
9. Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide.
Persistent Depressive Disorder
AKA Duisthymia. Adults who have this experience a mildly depressed mood, more often than not for at least two years.
A mood disorder make by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
A mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Depression increases the risk of suicide- the risk increases after the depressive episode, not while they are depressed. People with alcohol use disorder are also at increased risk for suicide.
Suicide rates differ by nation, race, gender, age group, income, religious involvement, marital status, and social support structure for gay and lesbian youth. Social suggestion, health status, and economic and social frustration are also contributing factors.
Non- suicidal self injury does not usually lead to suicide by may escalate to suicidal thoughts- people who don't tolerate stress well and tend to be self critical have this.
Biological perspective on mood disorders
Mood disorders run in families.
LINKAGE ANALYSIS- geneticists examine DNA from affected and unaffected family members, looking for differences and teasing out genes that put people at risk of depression.
Depression is complex- genes work together that could put people at greater risk.
Brain- Diminished brain activity during slowed down depressive states, and more activity during periods of mania have been found.
The left frontal lobe and an adjacent brain reward center are active during positive emotions, but less active during depressed states. Frontal lobes were found to be 7% smaller than normal.
Other studies show that the hippocampus, the emory processing center linked with the brains emotional circuits, is vulnerable to stress related damage.
Norepinephrine- Neurotransmitter that increases arousal and boosts mood.
Serotonin- Studies have found that the recipe for depression is significant life stress plus a variation on a serotonin-controlling gene. (More serotonin is good for you).
Social Cognitive Perspective on Mood Disorders
Explores the roles of thinking and acting.
Depressed peoples intensely negative assumptions about themselves, their situation, and their future lead them to magnify bad experiences and minimize good ones.
Research reveals how self defining believes and a negative explanatory style feed depressions vicious cycle.
Self defeating beliefs may arise from learned helplessness. Know what RUMINATION is.
Life s unavoidable failure lead only some people to become depressed partly because of peoples EXPLANATORY STYLE- who are what they blame for failures (or credit for success). Depression-prone people tend to explain bad events in terms that are STABLE (it's going to last forever), GLOBAL (it's going to affect everything I do), and INTERNAL (it's all my fault)
Seligman has contended that depression is common among young Westerners because of the rise of individualism and the decline of commitment to religion and family (makes people take personal responsibility)
Depression is often brought on by a stressful experience that disrupts our sense of who we are and why we are worthy of human beings.
PROBLEM: Chicken and the egg: Self-defeating beliefs, negative attributions, and self-blame coincide with a depressed mood and are indicators of depression. So how can they cause depression? (b/c a depressed mood triggers negative thoughts)
Staying focus on a problem (thanks to the continuous firing of the frontal lobe area that sustains depression) can be adaptive. But when it is relentless, self focused rumination diverts us from thinking about other life tasks and produces a negative emotional inertia.
This is why women have a higher risk of depression- they have a tendency to ruminate.
The Vicious Cycle of Depression (Social Cognitive Explanation for Depression)
The depression puzzle: (1) Negative, stressful events interpreted through (2) a ruminating, pessimistic explanatory style create (3) a hopeless, depressed state that (4) hampers the way the person thinks and acts. This, in turn, fuels (1) negative, stressful experiences such as rejection.
1) Stressful experiences
2) Negative explanatory style
3) Depressed Mood
4) Cognitive and Behavioral challenges
^which then fuel new stressful experiences.
A psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and diminished or inappropriate emotional expression.
Means split from reality.
People who have paranoid tendencies are particularly prone to delusions of persecution.
Positive symptoms- Presence of inappropriate behaviors.
Negative symptoms- Absence of appropriate behaviors.
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that my accompany psychotic disorders.
A confused or unintelligible mixture of seemingly random words and phrases, specifically as a form of speech indicative of advanced schizophrenia.
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
A behavioral syndrome marked by an inability to move normally.
Associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (catatonic type), bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders.
Types of Schizophrenia (5)
CHRONIC- The disorder develops gradually and recovery is doubtful.
ACUTE- Begins suddenly in reaction to stress or a major emotionally traumatic event. The prospects for recovery are brighter. (typically does not recur)
CATATONIC- Is the rarest type of schizophrenia. The symptoms are especially unusual, involving significant psychomotor oddities and disturbances.
DISORGANIZED- Characterized by disorganized behavior and speech, as well as disturbances in emotional expression. (AKA Hebephrenic)
UNDIFFERENTIATED- The undifferentiated subtype is diagnosed when people have symptoms of schizophrenia that are not sufficiently formed or specific enough to permit classification of the illness into one of the other subtypes. The symptoms of any one person can fluctuate at different points in time, resulting in uncertainty as to the correct subtype classification
A severe reduction in emotional expressiveness. People with depression and schizophrenia often show flat affect.
Brain abnormalities and viral infections for Schizophrenia
People with schizophrenia have increased dopamine receptors, which may intensify brain signals, creating positive symptoms such as hallucinations and paranoia.
Brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia include enlarged, fluid- filled cerebral cavities and corresponding decreases in the cortex.
Brain scan reveal abnormal activity in the frontal lobes, thalamus, and amygdala.
Interacting malfunctions in multiple brain regions and their connections my produce symptoms.
Viral infections or famine conditions during moms pregnant and low weight or oxygen depravation at birth causes it too.
Genetic influences on schizophrenia and early warning signs
Twin and adoption studies reveal that schizophrenia is inherited. The environment influences gene expression to enable the disorder to come out. (People are predisposed to have schizophrenia, and the environment brings it out)
No environmental causes invariably produce schizophrenia
Possible early warning signs of later development of schizophrenia-
Biological Factors: A mother with sever schizophrenia, oxygen deprivation and low weight at birth, short attention span, poor muscle coordination.
Psychological Factors: Destructive or withdrawn behavior, emotional unpredictability, poor peer relations and solo-play.
Anterior cingulate cortex
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.
It is also involved in rational cognitive functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy, impulse control, and emotion.
It appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate.
Somatic Symptom Disorder (Somatoform Disorder)
A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.
Psychological symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form.
Conversion disorder and anxiety disorder are examples.
Mental illnesses that cause bodily symptoms, including pain.
A somatic symptom disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.
Illness Anxiety Disorder (hypochondriasis or hypochondria)
A disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
No amount of reassurance by an physician convinces the patient that the trivial symptoms do not reflect a serious illness. So the patient moves on to another physician, but fails to confront the disorder's psychological root.
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Disorders in which one dissociates from consciousness. Often in response to an overwhelmingly stressful situation.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and altering personalities.
Two or more distinct identities are said to alternately control the person's behavior. Each personality has its own voice and mannerisms.
This is controversy whether or not dissociative identities are simply a more extreme version of our capacity to vary the selves we present- like being goofy around friends and serious at work.
A rare disorder characterized in which a person loses their sense of identity (they don't know who they are). They may even create new identities.
Dissociative fugue can be caused by stress, which might be the result of traumatic events that a person has experienced or witnessed.
Anorexia, bulimia, binge eating.
Genetics can cause these.
There are also cultural and gender influences.
An eating disorder in which a person (usually a young female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight.
An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating with purging, excessive exercise or fasting.
Weight fluctuates within or above normal ranges.
Binge Eating Disorder
Significant binge eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa.
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial personality disorder
Avoidant personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
People with avoidant personality disorder experience long-standing feelings of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. These feelings of inadequacy leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept.
Avoid people because they feel like they are being judged and are incapable of communicating.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships. A person with schizoid personality disorder often has difficulty expression emotions and does so typically in very restricted range, especially when communicating with others.
Tiffany (not really though).
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality because they feel uncomfortable when they are not.
Dramatic or impulsive behaviors to get attention.
Nicole Farahan (actually though).
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Self focused and self inflating.
Andrew Cohen (kind of).
Antisocial Personality Disorder
The most troubling personality disorder.
A personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
You can detect this before age 15 because children begin to lie, steal, fight, and display unrestrained sexual behavior. Half of these children become antisocial adults.
There are biological and psychological causes. Genetic predispositions may interact with the environment to produce the altered brain activity associated with antisocial personality disorder.
Philippe Pinel and Dix
Philippe Pinel was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy. Dix did the same.
American psychologist. He is best known for the Rosenhan experiment, a study challenging the validity of psychiatry diagnoses.
He said that labels matter, and studied the effect of the biasing power of labels.
A trained therapist uses treatment that uses psychological techniques seeking to overcome difficulties or achieve personal growth.
Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the persons physiology.
Physically changing the brains function by altering its chemistry with drugs (or affecting its circuitry with electroconvulsive shock, magnetic impulses, or psychosurgery).
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. He believed the patients free associations, resistance, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight.
Freud assumed that people must release the energy they had previously devoted to id- ego- superego conflicts to become healthier and less anxious. We do not fully know ourselves.
Psychoanalysts sit out of your line of vision and you say aloud whatever comes to mind. Psychoanalytic therapy is a long and repetitive process.
Focus on the unconscious' role
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material.
Psychoanalysts seek to understand what we resist in order to provide insight into there meaning.
Latent content is the hidden meaning of your dreams.
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
In psychoanalysis, the patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred towards a parent).
You take out your feelings with the situation on the therapist, even though you may not feel that way towards them. (ex. you are mad about something so you become mad at your therapist)
Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self insight.
Patients meet with their therapists face to face (not out of their line of vision). It is takes much less time and money than psychoanalytic therapy (don't meet as often and takes less time to produce results)
Aims to boost peoples self fulfillment by helping them grow in self awareness and self acceptance.
Focus on conscious thoughts rather than the unconscious in order to create self-acceptance and consequently self-fulfillment. Focuses on the present and future more than the past.
People are referred to clients or persons rather than patients.
The path to growth is taking immediate responsibly for ones feelings and actions rather than uncovering hidden determinants.
Client Centered Therapy
A humanistic therapy, developed by CARL ROGERS, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate client's growth.
Therapist listens without judging or interpreting, as seeks to remain from directing the client toward certain insights.
Encourages therapists to have AGE (acceptance, genuineness, empathy).
A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are often referred to as insight therapies.
Empathetic listning in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger's client centered therapy.
Unconditional Positive Regard
A caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which Rogers believed would help clients to deep self awareness and self acceptance.
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Not insight therapies.
Doubt the healing power of self awareness (You can be aware of why you are highly anxious during tests and still be anxious).
Behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
Behavior techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid.
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias.
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state, such as nausea, with an unwanted behavior, such as drinking alc.
Todays therapies can practice this, knowing that voluntary behaviors are strongly influenced their consequences. They reinforce desired behaviors and withhold reinforcement for undesired behaviors.
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Critics say that the techniques used in this may produce behavior changes that disappear when rewards and and deciding which behaviors should change is authoritarian and unethical.
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking, based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Aims to make people think of themselves in more positive ways to change their mindset.
Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
A confrontational cognitive therapy that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self defeating attitudes and assumptions.
Change the way people think by reveling the absurdity of their self defeating ideas.
Cognitive therapist who believed that changing peoples thinking can change their functioning. Gentler approach.
With cognitive therapy, Beck and his colleagues have sought to reverse clients catastrophizing beliefs about themselves, their situations, and their futures.
Gentle questioning seeks to erevel irritating thinking, and then to persuade people to remove the dark glasses through which they view life.
Used for depression.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
First practice behavior therapy and then cognitive therapy.
Helps clients regularly act our their new ways of thinking and talking in their everyday life.
Therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction.
Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
Work with family embers to heal relationships and mobilize family resources.
Client's Perceptions in Psychotherapy
People often enter therapy in crisis, Clients my need to believe the therapy was worth the effort, clients generally speak kindly of their therapists.
Regression Towards the Mean
The tendency for extreme or unusual scores (or emotions) to fall back (regress) toward their average.
Clients and therapists perceptions of therapy's effectiveness are vulnerable to inflation from two phenomena. One is the placebo effect,the power of belief in a treatment (if you think the treatment will be effective, then it will be). Regression toward the mean is the second phenomenon
Effectiveness of Psychoherapy
Those not undergoing therapy often improve, but those undergoing therapy are more likely to improve more quickly, and with less risk of relapse.
Studies show that when people seek out psychological treatment, their search for other medical treatment drops.
According to consumer reports, people are equally satisfied no matter what type of therapy they went through.
It has helped treat depression, anxiety, cognitive and cognitive behavioral therapies have been effective with treating anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, PTSD, and depression.
WE DONT KNOW IF ITS EFFECTIVE BECAUSE PEOPLE REGRESS TOWARDS THE MEAN NATURALLY. HOWEVER, STUDIES HAVE FOUND THAT THOSE UNDERGOING PSYCHOTHERAPY WILL RECOVER MORE QUICKLY.
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
Gives us the bottom line results of lots of studies.
Evidence- Based Practice
Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy treatment that was originally designed to alleviate the distress associated with traumatic memories. EMDR facilitates the accessing and processing of traumatic memories to bring these to an adaptive resolution. After successful treatment with EMDR, affective distress is relieved, negative beliefs are reformulated, and physiological arousal is reduced. During EMDR therapy the client attends to emotionally disturbing material in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus.
People imagine traumatic scenes while she triggered eye movements by waving her fingers in front of their eyes, supposedly enabling them to unlock and repurchase previously frozen memories.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
A mood disorder characterized by depression that occurs at the same time every year.
Light Exposure Therapy
Relieves depression symptoms for those with a seasonal pattern of major depressive disorder by activating a brain region that influences arousal and hormones.
During light therapy, you sit or work near a device called a light therapy box, which mimics natural outdoor light.
Commonalities among Psychotherapies
Hope for demoralized people, A new perspective, An empathic, trusting, caring relationship.
A bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problem.
The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
We can prevent some disorders by building individual's resilience.
Preventative Mental Health Programs
Based on the idea that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing oppressive, esteem destroying environment into more benevolent, nurturing environments that foster growth, self confidence and resilience.
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
Revolutionized the treatment of people with severe disorders, liberating hundreds of thousands from hospital confinement.
Double Blind Procedure
To evaluate the effectiveness of a new drug, researchers give half the patients the drug and the other half a similar appearing placebo. Neither the staff nor that patients know who gets which.
Double blind clinical trials suggest that especially for those with severe depression, antidepressant droves do have at least a modest clinical effect.
Antipsychotic Drugs (and examples)
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder (by dampening people's responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli).
Chlorpomzaine (Thorazine) treats patients experiencing positive symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations).
A common side effect is TARDIVE DYSKENSESIA, with involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs.
ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS: Atypical antipsychotics are second generation (the newer) antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions. They have fewer side effects.
Risperidone (Risperdal) and olanzapine (Zyperxa) have fewer side effects, but can increase obesity and diabetes.
The molecules of most conventional antipsychotic drugs are antagonists; they are similar enough to molecules of the neurotransmitter dopamine to occupy its receptor site sand block its activity.
Anti- anxiety Drugs (examples)
Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.
Examples are Xanax or Ativan, which depress central nervous system activity.
Helps relieve symptoms of OCD and PTSD.
They can also be addicting. People who stop taking them may experience withdrawal symptoms.
Antidepressant Drugs (examples)
Drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD. Many are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
The name is a misnomer.
These drugs are agonists; they work by increasing the availability of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine or serotonin, which elevate arousal and mood.
Examples: Fluoxetine (Prozac), which is an agonist. Zoloft and Paxil work by blocking the reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses- these drugs are SSRIs.
Their full psychological effect often requires four weeks. One possible reason for the delay is that increases serotonin promotes neurogenesis,l the birth of new brain cells, perhaps reversing stressed induced loss of neurons.
Studies have shown that the antidepressant drug effectiveness is "modest" and "not big". Through the double blindness procedure, it showed that this made a difference for severely depressed people.
Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitor (SSRIs)
The SSRI blocks the serotonin reuptake pumps. Therefore, when the serotonin is released into the synapse, it is unable to go back to the nerve that it came from, and is therefore "forced" to bind to the receptor sites of the next nerve. Normal neural activation is restored by the SSRI.
SSRI forces nerotransmitters to the receptor sites of the next neuron.
Mood Stabilizing Drugs
For those suffering the emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder, the simple salt LITHIUM can be an effective mood stabilizer.
About 7 in 10 people with bipolar desired benefit from a long term daily dose of this cheap salt.
Also reduces risks of suicide. Found effective in control of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder
ECT, rTMS (magnetic stimulation), Deep brain stimulation
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
A psychiatrists delivers 30 to 60 seconds of an electrical current. They do this 3 times a week for 2 to 4 weeks. The patient awakens and remembers nothing of the treatment or the preceding hours. 80% or more of people receiving ECT improved significantly.
Study after study confirms that ECT is an effective treatment for severe depression. We don't know how it does this.
Skeptics have raised one other possible explanation for how ECT works: as a placebo effect.
About 4 in 10 ECT treated patients relapse into depression within 6 months.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
Repeated pulses surged through a magnetic coil held close to a persons skull improves depressed moods.
Unlike ECT, rTMS procedures produces no seizures, memory loss, or other serious side effects (despite also stimulating our neurons).
Studies have found modest positive benefits. How it works is unclear. One possible explanation is that the stimulation energizes the brains left frontal love, which is relatively inactive during depression.
Deep Brain Stimulation
Neural stimulation that calms an overactive brain region linked to negative emotions.
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
A psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent the procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain.
Not used today.
Therapeutic Lifestyle Change Options
Human brains were designed for physical activity and social engagements- we we must do so to keep normal mental state.
Depressed people who undergo a program of aerobic exercise, sleep, light exposure, social engagement, negative though reduction, and better nutrition often gin some relief.
The research team was impressed by research showing that regular aerobic exercise and a complete nights sleep can boost mood and energy.
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