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Biology Chapter 46
Terms in this set (24)
The liver stores excess glucose in the form of __
What happens to excess protein in the diet?
Excess converted by liver cells into fat
What does the nervous system use as an energy source?
What is glycogen? Where is it stored? When is it synthesized? What is it used for?
Glycogen- is a polyssacharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy in animals.In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles. Synthesized in post absorptive period
Explain why organisms need each of the following: protein, carbohydrates, and fats. What does the organism do with these and why are they needed in the diet
Proteins- protein production used for energy
Carbohydrates- energy, source of carbon used for muscle strength
Fats-energy source, insulation, hormone production
__________ - the process of breaking down glycogen from the muscle and liver into glucose
Why and where do glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis occur? Explain.
Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis occur to provide glucose to blood
Occur in posts absorptive period
Describe the role of insulin in glucose regulation. 8-10pts
Insulin binds to cell surface receptor, stimulates signaling pathways, facilitates glucose diffusion into cells. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) in intracellualar vesicles move to the surface. Also inhibits glycogenolysis and glyconeogenesis in liver
Insulin is made by the __
Insulin is released into the circulatory system in response to...
Describe how insulin functions in a negative feedback system.
Blood in glucose rises during absorptive state so insulin secretion rises
_____ - low blood glucose levels.
When would glucagon be released and what function does it have?
Produced by pancreas released when blood glucose levels fall during postabsorptive state, stimulates the process of glycogenolysis and glucogenesis
Distinguish between endotherms and ectotherms. Give an example of each.
-Generate own heat
-Maintain constant body temperature
-Body temperature changes with environment
-Less energy expensive
__ - total energy expenditure of an animal per unit time
Describe the relationship between BMR and body mass. Give examples to illustrate.
Smaller animals lose heat more rapidly so they have a higher BMR. A Shrews' body mass is low causing tho have an elevated BMR and Elephants have a high body mass which correlates to having a low BMR
Distinguish between torpor and hibernation. Give an example of each.
Torpor- nightly lowering internal body temperatures to just a few degrees above that of the environment
Hibernation- metabolic rate extended for months
_____ - nightly lowering internal body temperature to just a few degrees above that of the environment
Discuss the role of leptin in maintaining a healthy body weight.
Leptin is produced in adipose tissue in proportion to fat mass. As more fat is stored in t he body, more leptin is secreted into the blood. Acts as hypothalamus to reduce appetite and increase metabolic rate
___ - produced in adipose tissue and acts on hypothalamus to reduce appetite and increase metabolic rate
Which is more difficult for animals to survive, extreme heat or extreme cold? Explain!
Extreme cold is better tolerated.
Some animals respond to cold with huge outpouring of glucose from liver which acts like an antifreeze
Define and give examples of endothermic homeotherms and ectothermic heterotherms.
Endothermic homeotherms- Abilty to fluctuate body temperature
-Ex birds and mammals
Ectothermic heterotherms- Able to have maintain stable body temperatures
-Ex other vertebrates and most invertebrates
Discuss the four mechanisms of heat exchange.
1. Radiation- emission of electromagnetic waves by the surfaces of objects
2. Evaporation- When water vaporizes from body's surface, the heat required to drive the process is conducted from the surface, thereby cooling animal
3. Convection- Transfer of heat by the movement of air or water next to the body. (Sitting near fan, Bats flapping wing, elephants waving ears)
4. Conduction- Body surfaces loses or gains heat through direct contact with cooler or warmer substances. Water has a higher heat capacity than air.
Explain why skinny bird legs don't freeze during long winter nights when the ambient temperature is well below freezing
Core temperature of endothermic homeotherms, like birds, have stable body temperatures. Birds can quickly adjust the body mechanisms foe retaining or releasing heat so that body temperture remains stable
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