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Task Roles

Help group focus on achieving goals

Social Roles

Also known as building/maintenance roles. Serves relationship needs.


Proposes and contributes new ideas and suggestions
(group task role)

Information seeker/giver

Asks for or gives information
(group task role)

Opinion seeker/giver

Asks for or gives opinions
(group task role)


Evaluates group's decisions and provides feedback
(group task role)


Takes care of mechanical duties, writes down information. (group task role)


Prods group to action (group task role)


Praises, offers support, reconciles disagreements
(functional social role)

Tension Reliever

Jokes to reduce tension, relaxes others (functional social role)


Keeps communication channel open, encourages members that are usually silent to talk (functional social role)


Tries to resolve conflict by offering a compromise (functional social role)


Rejects ideas, criticizes others
(dysfunctional social role)

Recognition Seeker/Self-Confessor

Tries to gain attention, brags.
(dysfunctional social role)


Interrupts, authoritative, monopolizes time
(dysfunctional social role)


withdraws from group
(dysfunctional social role)


A situation, setting, or audience that determines or affects your approach to communication


Information you provide before sending your primary messages

Six Traits of Performance

Pitch, Rate, Volume, Articulation, Physical Expression, Eye Contact

How to be a better group member

Be group-oriented, center conflict on issues, be critically open-minded, ensure understanding, and avoid dysfunctional roles.

The Tank (definition, goal, and action plan)

Pushy and ruthless, loud and forceful, the tank assumes that the end justifies the means. Expect no mercy.

Goal: Command Respect

Action Plan: Hold your ground, interrupt attack, aim for bottom line and fire, redirect to a peaceful solution

The Sniper (definition, goal, and action plan)

Identifies your weaknesses, uses them against you through sabotage, gossips behind your back, or puts you down in front of a crowd.

Goal: Bring the sniper out of hiding

Action Plan: Stop, look, backtrack, use searchlight questions (Intent, Relevancy), use tank strategy if needed, suggest alternative behavior for future

The Know-It-All (definition, goal, and action plan)

Knows 98% of anything, will tell you what they know for hours at a time, won't take a second to listen to ideas.

Goal: Open their minds to new ideas

Action Plan: Be prepared and know your stuff, backtrack, show them reasons why and why not, present your views softly and indirectly, turn the know-it-all into a mentor

The Think-They-Know-It-All (definition, goal, and action plan)

Doesn't know much, exaggerating, bragging, misleading, distracting, pull you off track.

Goal: Give their bad ideas the hook

Action Plan: Give the person a little attention, ask clarification questions, tell it like it is, give the person a break, break the cycle by gently confronting negative behavior and giving them credit when they do good

The Grenade (definition, goal, and action plan)

They blow their tops, are unable to stop and hurt everyone in range, ongoing cycle

Goal: Take control of the situation

Action Plan: Get person's attention, aim for Heart-Care, reduce volume and intensity, time out, don't provoke, get them to share feelings

The "Yes" Person (definition, goal, and action plan)

Quick to agree, slow to deliver, overcommit to please, but please very few

Goal: Get commitments you can count on

Action Plan: Make it safe to be honest, talk honestly, help the person learn to plan, help with future commitments, strengthen the relationship

The "Maybe" Person (definition, goal, and action plan)

Keeps putting off important decisions until it's too late, the decision makes itself, not his/her fault

Goal: Help them learn to think decisively

Action Plan: Establish a comfort zone, explore conflicts, clarify options/obstacles, use a decision-making system like positives and negatives, strengthen the relationship

The Nothing Person (definition, goal, and action plan)

They tell you nothing, no verbal or nonverbal feedback, stare past you as if you're not there.

Goal: Persuade the nothing person to talk

Action Plan: Plan enough time, ask open-ended questions expectantly, lighten it up carefully, guess, show the future

The "No" Person (definition, goal, and action plan)

Very negative, discouraging, drives others to despair

Goal: transition to problem solving

Action Plan: Go with the flow, use the person as a resource, don't rush them to make decisions, go for the polarity response, acknowledge the person's good intent

The Whiner (definition, goal, and action plan)

Whine incessantly, carry the weight go the world on their shoulders, lots of complaining about everything.

Goal: Form a problem-solving alliance

Action Plan: Listen for main points, interrupt and get specific, shift the focus to solutions, show the future, draw the line so it stops

Johar Window

About self-concept. Based on feedback and self-disclosure.

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