54 terms

Commercial Pilot: Certificates and Documents

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What privileges apply to a commercial pilot?
A person who holds a commercial pilot certificate may act as PIC of an aircraft.
a. Carrying persons or property for compensation or hire
b. For compensation or hire
14 CRF 61.122 also states that a commercial pilot must be qualified and comply with the applicable parts of the regulations that apply to the particular operation being conducted, for example Part 91 or 135

(14 CFR 61.113)
Discuss commercial pilot operations.
A commercial pilot intending to conduct operations as PIC of an aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire should look cautiously at any proposal for revenue operating flights.

The following facts should be considered

a. Part 61 states that you may be paid for acting as PIC of an aircraft engaged in carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. Part 61 does not mention, that if acting totally by yourself, you could be considered a commercial operator, and as such, be subject to an entirely different set of regulations.

b. A commercial pilot certificate by itself does not allow you to act as a commercial operator. It only allows you to work for a commercial operator and be paid for you service, with certain exceptions.

c. As a commercial pilot, certain commercial operations are allowed without being in possession of an "operating certificate."

Examples of such operations are:

BITCHEN Firefighting SPACE

B - Bird chasing
I - Instruction
T - Training flights
C - Crop dusting
H - Helicopter operations within (25sm)
- no more than 2 passengers
- no more than 6 per year
- each flight approved by FAA
-FSDO notified within 72hrs of flight
- No cargo
-must be VFR
E - Election Candidates
N- Non stop commercial air tours (25sm)
- begin and end at same airport
- Letter of Authorization
- must comply with part 136

F- Fire fighting

S - Survey flights
P - Parachute operations (25sm)
A - Aerial photography
C - Construction
E - Emergency mail
What does the term "commercial operator" refer to?
Commercial operator means a person who, for compensation or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property.

(14 CFR Part 1)
Define the term "common carriage."
A carrier becomes a common carrier when it "holds itself out" to the public, or a segment of the public, as willing to furnish transportation within the limits of it facilities to any person who wants it

The four elements in defining a "common carrier":
a. a holding out or a willingness to
b. Transport persons or property
c. from place to place
d. for compensation

(AC 120-12)
Define "holding out"
Holding out implies offering to the public the carriage of persons and property for hire either intrastate or interstate. This holding out which makes a person a common carrier can be done in many ways, and it does not matter how it is done.

a. Signs and advertising
b. the actions of agents, agencies, or salesmen who may obtain passenger traffic from the general public.
c. Gaining a reputation to serve all
d. Carrying only certain kinds of traffic.

(AC 120-12)
Define the term "private carriage"
Carriage for hire that does not involve holding out is "private carriage."

Private carriage for hire is carriage for one or several selected customers, generally on a long-term basis.

(AC 120-12)
Limitation to private carriage
Private carriage for hire is carriage for
no more than three contracts acting as the sole basis of the operator's business.

Any proposal for revenue-generating flights that would most likely require certification as an air carrier should be examined closely if you intend to practice private carriage.

(AC 120-12)
What are some examples of non-common carriage operations that involve the transportation of persons or property and may involve compensation, but are conducted under part 91?
a. Personal use and transport of guest
b. carriage of company officials, employees, and guests on an aircraft operated under a time sharing, interchange, or joint ownership agreement.
c. Carriage of property (except mail) incidental to business (limited compensation for expenses)
d Carriage of a group, with common purpose) when there is no charge, assessment or fee.
e. Fractional ownership.

(14 CFR 91.501)
Describe 14 CFR Parts 119, 121, 125, 135, 137
Part 119 - Certification: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators
Part 121 - Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations
Part 125 - Certification and Operations: Airplanes having a seating capacity of 20 or more passengers or a maximum payload capacity of 6,000 lbs or more
Part 135 - Operating Requirements: Commuter and On-Demand Operations.
Part 137 - Agricultural Aircraft Operations.
What limitation is imposed on a newly certificated commercial airplane pilot if that person does not hold an instrument rating?
a. The carriage of passengers for hire in airplanes on cross-country flight in excess of 50 nautical miles;

b. The carriage of passengers for hire in airplanes at night.

(61.133)
To act as a required pilot flight crew member of a civil aircraft, what must a pilot have in his/her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft?
a. a pilot certificate
b. a photo identification
c. a medical certificate

(14 CFR 61.3)
when must you notify the FAA by, if you change your address.
30 days after the date of the move.

(14 CFR 61.60)
If a pilot certificate were accidentally lost or destroyed, a pilot could continue to exercise privileges of that certificate provided he/she follows what specific procedure?
do paper work for a lost or destroyed airman cert and submit to DOT FAA

and the FAA will give you a temp for 60 days

(14 CFR 61.29)
When would a commercial pilot be required to hold a type rating?
a. gross weight over 12,500 lbs
b. Turbojet-powered airplanes
c. Other aircraft specified by the Administrator through aircraft type certificate procedures.

(14 CFR 61.31)
define the terms Category, Class and Type in respect to certification of airmen
Category-a broad classification of aircraft; ie., airplane, rotor-craft, glider, etc

Class- A classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics; ie, single-engine land, multi-engine land. etc

Type - A specific make and basic model of aircraft.

(14 CFR Part 1)
Can a commercial pilot carry a passenger in an aircraft operated in formation flight?
NO (14 CFR 91.111)
Can a commercial pilot carry passengers in a restricted, limited or experimental category aircraft?
NO (14 CFR 91.313)
When may a commercial pilot log flight time as second-in-command time?
a. when more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the aircraft or the regulations under which the flight is being conducted.

b. is qualified in second in command requirements and occupies a crew member station in an aircraft that requires more than one pilot.

(14 CFR 61.51)
When can you begin logging flight time as "night" flight time?
At the end of civil twilight to the beginning of morning civil twilight as published in the Air Almanac and converted into local time.

(14 CFR Part 1)
What are the requirements to remain current as a commercial pilot?`
Flight review given in an aircraft for which that pilot is rated by an authorized instructor within the preceding 24 calendar months.

operations 1 hr after sunset or 1 hour before sunrise. Must be night current with 3 landing and takes offs at night to a full stop in an aircraft of the same category, class and type.

(14 CFR 61.56 & 61.57)
What class of medical certificate is required for commercial pilots?
Second class medical

(14 CFR 61.23)
What is the duration of a second-class medical certificate for operations requiring a commercial pilot certificate
on the last day of the 12th month after the month of the date on the certificate
Is a commercial pilot required to log all flight time?
Only when accounting for experience required for recency and further qualifications.
What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight?
Airworthiness Certificate
Registration Certificate
Operating limitations
Weight and Balance Data
Which documents, required on board an aircraft, must be displayed in such a way so as to be visible by both passengers and crew?
Airworthiness certificate or a special flight authorization

(14 CFR 91.203)
Are the aircraft and engine logbooks required to be carried on board an aircraft?
No
How can a pilot determine if his/her aircraft is equipped with a Mode C altitude encoding transponder?
By referencing the current weight and balance equipment list for that aircraft.
IF the Airworthiness Certificate of a particular aircraft indicated one of the following categories, what significance would this have?
Normal category - load factor of 3.8G

Utility category - load factor of 4.4G

(14 CFR Part 23)
Are airplane flight manuals (AFM) require to be on board all aircraft?
Yes, or FAA approved POH
(AC 60-6)
What are Special Flight Permits, and when are they necessary?
a. flying an aircraft to a base where repairs, alterations or maintenance are to be performed

b. delivering or exporting an aircraft

c. production flight testing new production aircraft.

d. Evacuating aircraft from areas of impending danger.
e. Conducting customer demonstration flights in new
production aircraft that have satisfactorily completed production flight tests

f. to allow the operation of an overweight aircraft for flight beyond its normal ranger over water or land areas where adequate landing facilities or fuel is not available.

(14 CFR 21.197)
What is the procedure for obtaining a special flight permit?
FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR)
What instruments and equipment are required for VFR day flight?
Anti collision light
ELT

Compass
Airspeed indicator
Manifold Pressure Gauge
Altimeter

Fuel Gauge
Oil Temperature gauge
Oil pressure gauge
Tachometer for each engine
Seatbelts

(14 CFR 91.205)
What instruments and equipment are required for VFR night flight?
Fuses
Landing light
Anti collision light
Position Light
Source of energy


(14 CFR 91.205)
Weight and Balance
The center of gravity is the point in a body where weight can be considered balanced.

If weight shifts to become unbalanced the center of gravity will change within the body to maintain a center balance.

In a helicopter the center of gravity has limitations due to the amount of control inputs available.
Who is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained in an airworthy condition?
The pilot in command. The PIC shall discontinue the flight when un-airworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.

(14 CFR 91.403)
After aircraft inspections have been made and defects have been repaired, who is responsible for determining that the aircraft is in an airworthy condition?
The pilot in command

(14 CFR 91.7)
Can an aircraft operator allow flight operations to be conducted in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment?
a. Operation of aircraft with a Minimum Equipment List (MEL), as authorized by (14 CFR 91.213a)

b. Operation of an aircraft without a MEL under (14 CFR 91.213d)
What are Minimum Equipment Lists?
The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a precise listing of instruments, equipment, and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment.

The MEL is the specific inoperative equipment document for a particular make and model aircraft by serial and registration numbers.

The FAA-approved MEL includes only those items of equipment which the administrator finds may be inoperative and yet maintain an acceptable level of safety by appropriate conditions and limitations.

(AC 97-67)
If an aircraft is not being operated under a MEL, how can you determine which instruments and equipment on board can be inoperative and the aircraft still be legal for flight?
a person may take off an aircraft in operations conducted under part 91 with inoperative instruments and equipment without an approved MEL provided as long as the inoperative instruments and equipment are not -

Part of the VFR-day type certification instruments and equipment prescribed in the applicable airworthiness regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated;

Indicated as required on the aircraft's equipment list, or on the Kinds of Operations Equipment List, for the kind of flight operations being conducted.

Required by anotherany other part in CFR 14

Require to be operational by an airworthiness directive.

(14 CFR 91.213)
What is an aircraft equipment list, and where is it found?
Furnished with the aircraft is an equipment list that specifies all the required equipment, and all equipment approved for installation in the aircraft.

You can find this information in the Weight and balance data.
What must happen if an AMT removes or installs a piece of equipment that is on the aircraft equipment list?
The AMT must change the weight and balance record to indicate the new empthy weight and EWCG, and the equipment list is revised to show which equipment is actually installed.

You can find this information in the weight and balance record.

(FAA-H-8083-1)
What length of time can an aircraft be flown with inoperative equipment on board?
as long as he wants to replace it with a place card at the next due maintenance. or the equipment has to be repaired.

(AC 91-76)
What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight?
a privately-rated pilot or above must fly the aircraft

make an operational check of the maintenance performed

and log the flight in the aircraft records.

(91.407)
How long does the Airworthiness Certificate of an aircraft remain valid?
as long as the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 43 and 91

and the aircraft is registered in the United States.

(14 CFR Part 21)
Does an aircraft's registration certificate have an expiration date?
Yes, three years on the last day of the month that the registration was issued.
What are the required maintenance inspections for aircraft?
Annual inspection - 12months
100-hr - when operated for hire
Can a 100-hr inspection be substituted for an annual inspection?
No
What types of aircraft inspection can be substituted for a 100-hr inspection.
The following may replace a 100hr inspection.

Aircraft inspected in accordance with an approved aircraft inspection program under Part 135 or 135

Progressive inspections which provide for the conplete inspection of an aircraft by specifying the intervals in hours and days when routine and detailed inspections will be performed during a 12-calander month period.

(14 CFR 91.409)
If an aircraft, carrying passengers for hire, has been on a schedule of inspection every 100 hours, under what condition may it continue to operate beyond the 100 hours without a new inspection?
The 100 hr limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
What are the required tests and inspections of aircraft and equipment to be legal for both VFR and IFR flights?
A AV1ATE

AD's - as required

Annual inspection - 12 months

VOR check (IFR) - 30 days

100hr - for hire or instruction

Altimeter (pitot static system) - (IFR) 24 months

Transponders - 24 months

ELT - 1 hr continued use, battery half life, 12months

(14 CFR 91.409, 91.403, 91.171, 91.411, 91.413, 91.207)
Define preventive maintenance.
Preventive maintenance is considered to as simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.

oil changes, wheel bearings lubrication, hydraulic fluid refills,

any entry must be made in the aircraft maintenance records. with -

description of the work
date of completion
pilots name
signature
cert #
type of cert

(FAAH-8083-25)
What are Airworthiness Directives?
An "AD" is the medium use by the FAA to notify aircraft owners and other potentially interested persons of unsafe conditions that may exist because of design defect, maintenance, or other causes, and to specify the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated.

AD's are regulatory and compliance is mandatory, unless specific exemption is granted.

AD Biweekly's are free on the internet at rgl.faa.gov

(FAAH-8083-25)
Who is responsible for ensuring that all AD's have been complied with
It is the aircraft owner or operator's responsibility to assure compliance with all pertinent AD's.

(FAAH-8083-25)
When must the NTSB be notified?
NTSB Notification: P-FACTION

Property damage more than $25,000
Fire, in flight
Accident
Collision, in flight
Turbine failure
Illness of crew member
Overdue aircraft
No control: control failure of any sort