95 terms

LS - test #1

Three domains
1. Physical development = including all biological processes. Any physical changes
2. Cognitive development = all its processes. Changes in thought, language, intelligence
3. Psychosocial development = socio-emotional processes. Changes in relationships, emotional, personality traits, interpersonal
Major Characteristics of life-span perspectives (8)
1. Development is life long
2. Development is multi-dimensional (there are 3 different domains)
3. Development is multi-directional
4. Development is plastic/plasticity = ability to bend
5. Development is multi-disciplinary
6. Development is contextual (3 contexts)
7. Development involves growth, maintenance & the regulation of loss
8. Development is a co-construct of biology, cultures & the individual
3 Contexts
1. Normative age-graded influences = individuals of same age group have same experiences
2. Normative history-graded influences = common to people of particular generation.
3. Non-normative influences = unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life
Normative age-graded influences
individuals of same age group have same experiences
Normative history-graded influences
common to people of particular generation.
Non-normative influences
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life
Life expectancy =
before 20th century is took 5000 years of human existence to extend life expectancy 25 years
Childhood: Original sin
= Middle ages = born as bad being, child rearing was to remove sin
Childhood: Tabula Rasa
(Blank Slate) = John Locke = kids have no knowledge but gain thru experience. Parents foster experience
Childhood: Innate Goodness
= Jean-Jacques Rousseau = kids basically good so you didn't have to monitor or guide them
= persons genetic makeup (some you may not see)
= expression of the genes, what you can actually see. Physical characteristics. It also includes psychological characteristics
= 1 year of trying and inability to conceive. 8-17% of US couples have this problem.
Infertility in men (3)
1. Low sperm count
2. Blockage of the ejaculatory duct
3. Poor sperm quality
Infertility in women (6)
1. Blockage of the fallopian tube. Can result from scar tissue (sexually transmitted disease, endometriosis-thick lining). Can surgically remove the scar tissue
2. Hormones are off = not producing enough eggs.
3. Eggs may be abnormal = genetically, physiological abnormal conception is not possible
4. Environment is hostile = too acidic.
5. Disease of the uterine lining = fertilization does take place but cannot attach to uterine wall
6. After age 30 the quality of the egg is lessened
= artificial insemination - just put sperm where it needs to go
= artificial insemination by donor (not husbands sperm)
= in vitro fertilization = fertilize egg inside woman's body
- gamete intra-fallopian transfer (fertilize in petri dish)
= zygote intra-fallopian transfer (fertilize in petri dish)
Five chromosomal abnormalities
1. downs syndrome
2. Turner syndrome
3. Klinefelter syndrom
4. Fragile X syndrome
5. XYY syndrome
Downs syndrome (3)
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- (aka Trisomy 21) problem with chromosomal pair 21 = extra piece of chromosome.
- Mental challenge, cognitive deficit, physical abnormalities = shorter, stockier, hypothyroidism, eyes are almond shaped & further spaced, poor vision, enlarged tongue, simian crease (one line across the palm, not three lines)
Turner syndrome (3)
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- XO instead of XX (23rd pair) = genetic female but an X and a blank.
- Physical characteristics = shorter, webbed neck (toward shoulder), shorter fingers and toes, broader chest, underdeveloped breasts, sterility, completely feminine, good verbal ability, struggle with spacial tasks/space relationships & math
Klinefelter syndrome
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- XXY instead of XY (23rd pair) suppose to male, but have XXY.
- Looks like a male (penis & testicles), sterility. Occasionally have in female (very rare). Usually male, they get an extra X. Males = very tall, underdeveloped testes, large breasts. If identified early can give hormone therapy. Normal intelligence, below normal verbal skills
Fragile X syndrome (4)
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- (23rd pair) = abnormality on one of the X chromosome, one has a chip or break.
- Males or females. In males it would be more severe b/c they only have one X-chromosome.
- Mentally challenged, short attention spans, language problems. Spend a lot of time in speech therapy
XYY syndrome
- Chromosomal abnormalities
- (23rd pair). An extra Y.
- AKA super male.
- Above average height, no correlation to aggression
What are Gene-Linked abnormalities
(about 7000 of them) - results from a combination of harmful genes. Genes come together and don't work well together
Seven Gene-Linked abnormalities
1. Phenylketonuria -PKU
2. Sickle cell anemia
3. Hemophilia
4. Spina bifida
5. Tay-Sachs disease
6. Cystic fibrosis
7. Huntington disease
Phenylketonuria -PKU
- Gene-Linked abnormalities
- cannot metabolize/break down phenylalanine (AA).
- Recessive gene combination.
- Test right after birth.
- Diet can help control. If left untreated children develop mental retardation, hyperactivity.
- Normally in Caucasians
Sickle cell anemia (6)
- Gene-Linked abnormalities
- African Americans.
- RBC is shaped like a sickle. Makes it difficult to pass through veins, hang up on each other and cause blood clots.
- Swelling in joints, heart & kidney failure, less than normal O2 supply, low Hgb, tend to attach the hips.
- Treatment = anticoagulant for clots, pain medication, hip replacement.
- Protects against malaria. 1 in 400 africian americans
Hemophilia (4)
- Gene-Linked abnormalities
- delayed blood clotting, internal & external bleeding, bruising, receive a lot of blood transfusion
- more common in males
- common in royal houses of Europe. Last one was alexe, Russia.
Spina bifida (5)
- Gene-Linked abnormalities
- neural tube disorder. Affects brain and spine.
- Women should take folic acid to help prevent spina bifida.
- Mild case = hole at base of spine. Help walking, braces, mild brain issues.
- Severe case = entire brain is missing, or partial brain only. Born still born
Tay-Sachs disease (5)
Gene-Linked abnormalities
- affects Jewish community. Jewish community does genetic counseling.
- Accumulation of lipids which get into the nervous system. Accumulate in neuron, spine.
- Complete deceleration of mental and physical functions.
- 1 in 30 Americans who have the gene.
- Life expectancy is about 5 years.
Cystic Fibrosis
Gene-Linked abnormalities
- drowning in own secretions. Glandular malformation. - Too much fluid in the lungs. Overproduce mucous and cannot get it out.
- Breathing problems, digestive problems, have lots of infections, respiratory therapy (percussion techniques - cupping), scar tissue formation in lungs may result in lung transplant, with excellent care can live well into middle age, careful in winter months
Huntington disease (4)
- Gene-Linked abnormalities
- CNS deterioration, breaking down brain & spinal cord.
- Usually diagnosed around 35 years old. On diagnosis is a 5 year survival rate.
- Lose ability to walk, coordination, cognitive difficulties, lose language.
ultrasound (5)
- 7-8 weeks into pregnancy, 4-6 months.
- No harmful effects, so can have multiply effects. 3D ultrasounds.
- High frequency sound waves & bouncing off fetus.
- Not 100% on determining the baby (look at 16 weeks).
- Confirm date of pregnancy, how many you are having, detect any structural abnormalities (shape of head-can't see brain), microencephaly, measure the femur (good bone growth)
fetal MRI (2)
- done if they suspect a problem on ultrasound,
- looking for structural issues → brain, spinal cord, CNS, heart, gastrointestinal issues, bladder (urinary), rectal, placental abnormalities
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) (7)
- if they suspect problem with fetal MRI.
- Done between 10-12 weeks of pregnancy.
- Looking for genetic defects or chromosomal abnormalities.
- Take a small piece of the placenta. Results in 10 days.
- Risk = miscarriage (disruption of placenta), inter-uteral infections, limb deformities.
- Doesn't test for neural tube stuff, can test X and Y issues.
- Some point in the future genetic testing for autism (mom, dad & kids)
Amniocentesis (3)
- more commonly used 15-18th week for pregnancy. - Testing the fluid. Done in conjunction with ultrasound.
- Chromosomal, metabolic, gene linked abnormalities, neural tube defects, Rh disease (2nd baby)
What are the 3 Periods in the prenatal development
1. Germinal = conception to 2 weeks
2. Embryonic = 3-8 week
3. Fetal = 9-40 week
Germinal Period - 3 parts
zygote, blastocyst, trophoblast = first two weeks after conception. Don't run the risk of harm (alcohol/smoking)
Part 1 = zygote = fertilization, after egg & sperm unite. Takes two week to get to uterus
Part 2 = more cell division
Part 3 = attachment of zygote to uterine wall
Zygote →
blastocyst is the inside (jelly) & trophoblast is the outer (outside of the donut)
Blastocyte →
Trophoblast →
placenta & umbilical cord
embryonic period definition & 3 tissues
= 2-8 weeks, fast development of cells, tissues & organs. So much development can cause morning sickness
Three types of tissues developing in embryonic period: ***
1. endoderm → inner layer → digestive system (salivary glands), lungs (respiratory system), liver, pancreas
2. mesoderm → middle layer → circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins), bones, muscles, reproductive system, exrectory system (bladder, rectum)
3. ectoderm → outer layer → nervous system (CNS, Peripheral nerves system), sense organs (eyes, ears, nose), skin, hair, nails
endoderm →
inner layer →
1. digestive/gastrointestinal system (salivary glands),
2. lungs (respiratory system),
3. liver,
4. pancreas
mesoderm → (6)
middle layer →
1. circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins),
2. bones,
3. muscles,
4. reproductive system,
5. excrectory system (bladder, rectum, kidneys)
6. cartilage
ectoderm → (6)
outer layer →
1. nervous system (CNS-brain & spinal cord),
2. Peripheral nerves system),
3. sense organs (eyes, ears, nose),
4. skin,
5. hair,
6. nails
placenta functions (7)
= oxygen, nourishment, waste removal, combat internal infections, produces hormones (important to maintain the pregnancy), another set of hormones prepare breasts for lactation, produce hormone for starting contractions
Fetal period
- slow growth, next 7 months of growing & developing, maturing. 25-26 weeks you would have a viable fetus, because lungs start to produce surfactant which necessary to have oxygen exchange.
(spontaneous abortion) = before 20th week, bodies regulating the developing fetus. Causes = genetic abnormalities, physical shock, infection, abnormalities of the uterus
placenta previa
= 1 in 200 pregnancies. Placenta partially or completely over cervix. Want placenta higher up in uterus. Can discover upon ultrasound. May be on bed rest (at 6 months). Automatic C-section.
placenta abruption
= placenta separate prematurely away from uterine wall. Causes = may be unknown, high BP, smoking, drinking, cocaine use. Symptoms = continuous abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding. If it continues the baby loses oxygen.
hyperemesis gravidarum
= rare, morning sickness never goes away, persistent and excessive N&V. dehydration, F&E imbalance.
= if pre-eclampsia is left unchecked. Uncontrollable high BP. Stroke, coma, fetal or maternal death (47:00)
6. pre-eclampsia
= increase in BP & excessive fluid retention. Symptoms = ankles, feet, hands, face. Can start in 20th week of pregnancy. Pre-warning signs = headaches, dizziness, blurry vision. Tests = urine test for protein.
5. Thrombophlebitis
= blood clot in legs. Symptoms = pain, swelling, redness, tenderness, hotness. Clinical testing = Homan's sign (hold under calf, dorsiflex the foot. Painful if blood clot)
Rh incompatibility
= test on 1st pregnancy, critical on 2nd pregnancy. Mom is Rh- and dad is Rh+ and the baby is Rh+ and some of the Rh+ leaks out into mom and she develops antibodies. If 2nd baby is Rh+ mom body will start to attack it.
nature vs. nuture
nature = biology (Rousseau)
nurture = environment (john locke)
Mitosis begins?
Meiosis begins (male & female)
Male = puberty
Female = early in prenatal period when unripened ova form
What is the human genome project?
researchers mapped the sequence of the chemical units or letters that make up the strands of DNA in a full set of human chromosomes.
What is the genetic uniqueness of twins?
identical twins = 1 egg is divided, genetically identical, 1 in 250 births
fraternal twins = 2 eggs, 2 sperms, no more identical than other brothers and sisters
What is couvade and what are five symptoms?
the father experiences some of the same physiological symptoms that the expectant mother experiences.
Ex. bloating, weight gain, fatigue, insomnia, nausea
why would a mother not realize she is pregnant? (7)
1. history of irregular periods and/or infertility
2. breakthrough bleeding during pregnancy and may have had irregular periods
3. home pregnancy tests are not perfect
4. birth control is not 100%, effectiveness can be diminished with certain illnesses
5. women who exercise strenuously have irregular periods
6. obese women
7. some fetuses don't move around a lot.
when should a mother not breast feed?
1. HIV positive
touch & tactile system - 1st trimester
first sensory system to develop
touch & tactile system - 2nd trimester
receptors differentiate (ex. photo, chemo, thermo)
touch & tactile system - 3rd trimester (3)
1. touch functional
2. actual temperature discrimination at the end of 3rd trimester
3. most mature sensory system at birth
Vision - 1st trimester (2)
1. eyelids are fused
2. optic nerve & cup being formed
Vision - 2nd trimester (1)
startle to light = arms move back
auditory - 2nd trimester (1)
will turn to auditory sounds
auditory - 3rd trimester (1)
debris in middle ear, loss of hearing
Taste - 1st trimester (1)
taste buds develop
Taste - 3rd trimester (1)
can respond to different tastes
SWEET, sour bitter, salt
Movement - 2nd trimester (1)
sleep states (Stages 1-4, REM)
When is sensitivity to teratogens greatest?
in the first two months and peaks at around four weeks after conception
What are three maternal conditions that adversely affect prenatal development?
1. stress
2. malnutrition
3. maternal age
what is a teratogen?
any chemical substance, disease or maternal condition that can cause birth defects
What is diethylstilbestrol (DES)? (3)
- it was a hormone given in 1940s-1950s to maintain pregnancy. (given to women who had multiple miscarriages)
- genital abnormalities in males & females
- Increased cancer of cervix
What is Thalidomide?
- given in the 1950s & 1960s as anti-nausea for morning sickness
- deformed limbs (Phocomelia) = missing limbs, shortened arms, fusing of fingers & toes, ears slightly externally rotated, smaller ears
- FDA did not pull soon enough
What is parturition? (5)
1. pre-stage to birth.
2. Happens 2 weeks prior to delivery.
3. Shift in hormones of progesterone & estrogen. Progesterone is high during pregnancy by keeping cervix firm & uterus soft & flexible. Progesterone is decreasing & estrogen is increasing. Estrogen starts the contractions.
4. Cervix thins and becomes more flexible (dilating).
5. Ligaments in hip area are stretching.
What are the four stages of birth?
1. Dilation stage
2. Descent and birth
3. Delivery of the placenta
4. Recovery
Dilation stage (4)
1. 1st stage
2. dilating the cervix.
3. Longest stage. Lasts up to 12 hours. Stage typically decreases with each baby. Sometimes dilation will stop, then given potosan/oxytosan.
4. It ends when cervix is completely dilated (10cm)
Descent and birth (4)
1. 2nd stage
2. 1.5 hours.
3. Begins where last stage ends (dilation of cervix)
4. ends with baby delivered.
Delivery of the placenta (5)
1. 3rd stage
2. 5-30 minutes.
3. Begins when baby is fully born
4. ends with the delivery of placenta (expelled).
5. APGAR is administered (evaluation of the baby). Know the 5 things they are assessing. Heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. In the US 96% score in 7. Done right at birth, 5 minutes and possible 10 minutes after birth
Recovery (4)
1. 4th stage
2. begins after placenta is delivered
3. ends between one to several hours after.
4. Looking for = BP & HR comes back to resting, uterus starts firming up again.
What are the five sign tested in APGAR?
1. Heart rate
2. Respiratory effort
3. Muscle tone
4. reflex irritability
5. color
What are seven reasons for C-sections?
1. failure to progress labor (cervix stops dilating, doesn't start)
2. Repeat C-section (1/3 are repeat)
3. Fetal distress
4. Breech positioning, mal positioning = 15% due to breech
5. Not enough room = baby is too big
6. Maternal health conditions = high BP, diabetes, heart/lung issues, genital herpes, multiple births (more than 2)
7. Any emergency = placental abruption, placenta previa, cord prolapse (cord comes out first/cord ruptures), rupture of the uterus
What are six risk factors of C-sections?
1. infection
2. blood loss
3. constipation (due to pain meds)
4. Get up and walk because: lung/pneumonia issues, don't want to lose endurance/strength
5. Longer hospital and recovery time
6. Reactions to anesthesia
What is the neonate period?
1st four weeks. Four weeks to transfer to infancy, transition from inside womb to outside womb.
What are some newborn appearances? (14)
1. 7-7.5 lbs
2. 20 inches
3. boys heavier than girls
4. rounded belly
5. shoulders are narrow
6. hips are small
7. arms & legs are short compared to length of torso
8. head is large in proportion to body, can be elongated (moulding).
9. Soft spots = there are 2. There is only a membrane covering the brain. Aka fontanels. 1. One is on the front of the head (larger of the two) diamond shaped. Takes about 18 months to close. 2. Back of head, triangle shaped, 2-6 months.
10. Hair = some have, some don't.
11. lanugo → fine, soft hair and it covers the body, find on back, shoulders, sides of forehead, ears, face (cheeks). This is seen in premature infants (not permanent), over term babies (but a little bit less)
12. eyes = typically born with blue eyes. Usually can tell by 6 months if they are still blue then it will be blue. Green eye at about one year old.
13. Do not produce tears. Start producing at 3-4 weeks.
14. Skin = 1. Peeling skin. Most common in over term babies. 2. Vernix caseosa . 3. Stork bit or angel kiss 4. Mongolian spot
What is vernix caseosa?
= will see within 1st few days. Creamy white oily substance coming from their skin. It is protection from infection
What is stork bit or angel kiss?
= little red areas. Superficial blood vessels that have ruptured. Not permanent, could take months to go away.
What is mongolian spot?
= dark area of pigment. Common on low back area or butt. Can look like bruising. Will eventually fade. Can take up to four years of age. Want to make sure it's not bruising.