17 terms

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration
the process by which cells obtain energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
Glycolysis
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
Pyruvic Acid
the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular repiration that follow glycolysis
NADH
the reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration
Anaerobic
describes a process that does not require oxygen
Aerobic Respiration
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized to ___ and reduced to NADH
Fermentation
the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that is called ______ as the main end product
Alcoholic Fermentation
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
Kilocalories
a unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories
Mitochondrial Matrix
the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
Acetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A)
a copmound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism
Krebs Cycle
a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy
Oxaloacetic Acid
a four-carbon compound of Krebs cycle that combines with Acetyl CoA to form citric acid
Citric Acid
a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions