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the heart is

the pump that circulates blood to all parts of the body

arteries, viens and capillaries

are structures that take blood from the heart to the cells and return blood from the cells back to the heart


carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries wastes away

the lymph system

returns excess fluid from tissues to general circulation

the hearts apex

lies on the diaphram and points to the left of the body.

heart sounds are heard thru

a stethoscope.


surrounds the heart its a double layer of dense fibrous tissues

cardiac muscle



covers the heart valves and lines the blood vessels

superior vena cava

bring deoxygenated blood to the right atrium

coronary sinus

heart muscle to the right atrium

pulmonery artery

takes blood away from the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygenation

pulminary veins

bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium


takes blood away from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.

lower chambers of the heart

right and left ventricle

tricuspid valve

positioned between the right atrium adn the right ventricle.

chordae tendinae

small fibrous strands connectiong the edges of the tricuspid valve to the pappilary muscle that are projections of the myocardium.

mitral valve

located between the left atrium and the left ventricle blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle

lumonary semilunar valve

found at the orifice of the pulmonary artery it allows blood to travel from right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.

right side of heart

deoxygenated blood flows into the heart from the superior and inferior vena the right atrium to the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle through the pulminary semilunar valves to the pulmonary arterywhich takes blood to the lungs for oxygen.

left side of heart

oxygenated blood flows into the heart from the lungs by the pulminary veins to the left atrium through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle to the aorta for general circulation.

stroke volume

amount of blood ejected from the ventricles

cardiac output

total volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute.

heart sounds are also known as

lubb dubb sounds

ecg or ekg


ideal cholesteral level

less than 200

ldl low density lipoprotien level

less than 100

HDL high density lipoprotien

40 or higher


less than 150


used to discuss any change from the normal rate or rhythm of the heart


slow heart rate less than 60bpm


rapid heart rate more than 100bpm


indicate some defects in the valves of the heart shen valves fail to close properly a gurgling or hissing sounds will occur.

mitral valve prolapse

which the vale between the left atria and the left ventricle closes imperfectly symptyms are fatigue palpitations headache chest pain and anxiety

coronary artery disease

narrowing of the arteries that supply oxygen and nutrient filled blood heart muscle

angina pectoris

severe chest pain that arises whe the heart doesnt recieve enough oxygen.

myocardial infarction

heart attack


inflammation of the outer membrane covering the heart


inflammation of the heart muscle


inflammation of the membrane that lines the heart and covers the valves

rheumatic heart disease

may result of a person having frequent strep throat ifections during childhood

heart failure

occurs when the ventricles of the heart are unable to contract effectively and blood pools in the heart


excessive blood in the tissues

CHF congestive heart failure

similar to heart failure but in addition there is edema in the lower extremities


is said to occur whe the conduction system of the heart is affected.

premature contractions

arrythmia disorder


rhythm breaks down and muscle fibers contract at random without coordination


helps open clogged vessels

coronary bypass

surgical detour or bypass that allows bloodsupply to go around the blocked area of the coronary artery.

cardiac stents

hold arteries open after angioplasty

human hearts own pacemaker

sinus node.

q wave

negative deflection

r wave

positive deflection

s wave

is a negative wave

t wave

positive wave and represents ventricular re polarization

u wave

occasionally seen ain some patients is a positive deflection and associated with repolarization.

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