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19 terms

Science: Chapter 4

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mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
luster
Describes how light is reflected from a mineral's surface. Minerals that contain metal are usually shiny
density
It is the mass in a given space. Density = Mass/Volume.
Cleavage
It occurs when minerals split easily along flat surfaces.
Fracture
Describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
Geode
It is a rounded, hollow rock that is often lined with minerals. Crystals form inside a geode when water containing dissolved minerals seeps into a crack or hollow in a rock. Slowly crystallizaiotn occurs, lining the inside with large crystals that are often perfectly formed
Crystallization
The process where atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure. Minerals can form in 2 ways: 1. by crystallization of magma or lava, 2. by crystallization of materials dissolved in water.
Solution
A mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another. When elements and compounds that are dissolved in water leave a solution, crystallization occurs.
Vein
A narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from the surrounding rock.
Gemstones
A hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster. They are rare. Polished and cut gemstones are called gems and used for jewelry.
Ore
A rock that contains a metal or other useful mineral that can be mined and sold at a profit.
Alloy
Is a solid mixture of two or more elements at least one shold be a metal.
Smelting
Is when an ore is mixed with other substances, then melted to separate the useful metal from other elements the ore contains.
What are the 5 characteristics of a mineral?
1. naturally occurring 2. inorganic 3. solid 4. definite crystal structure 5. definite chemical composition
How are minerals identified?
They are identified by properties like color, streak, luster, density, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and special properties like magnetism or fluorescence.
How do minerals form from magma and lava?
THey form as hot magma cools inside the crust, or as lava hardens on the surface. WHen these liquids cool to a solid state, they form crystals.
How do minerals form from solutions?
They can form when elements and compounds that are dissolved in water leave a solution and crystallization occurs. Minerals can form this way underground in bodies of water on the Earth's surfac.e
How do minerals form from evaporation?
They can form when solutions evaporate, like gypsum and calcite.
How do minerals form from hot water solutions?
When hot water solutions cool, elements and compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals. Deep underground magma can heat water to a high temperature. Elements and compounds dissolve in this hot water. Pure metals that crystallize from hot water solutions underground, often form veins.