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95 terms

Sociology 1 Midterm 3

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Bourgeoisie
In Karl Marx's analysis, those who own and control the means of production in capitalist societies
Capital
Pierce Bourdieu's term for the kinds of resources that individuals have in varying social classes and factions within classes
Caste System
stratification system with clearly marked class divisions, in which people are born and have little chance for mobility to a different class
Charismatic Leader
Max Weber's term for those who, by virtue of their personal qualities, can mobilize subordinates in a system of inequality to engage in conflict with superordinates
Classes
-Max Weber: those who share a common set of life chances and opportunities in markets
-Karl Marx: divisions in a society reflecting ownership of the means of production
-General: differences among subpopulations by virtue of their respective share of valued resources
Class Faction
Existence within each social class of a dominant, intermediate, and dominated sector or faction. Members of similar factions in different social classes often have more in common with each other than with members of their own class
Conflict of Interest
Karl Marx: basic tension and incompatibility of goals between those who control resources and those who do not
Cultural Capital
Amount of education, knowledge, taste, skills, manners, and linguistic styles possessed by individuals
Economic Capital
amount of money from productive and economic activities that individual possess
Income Distribution
percentage of total income held by different percentages of the population, usually calculated in terms of fifths
Open-Class System
stratification system with less clearly demarcated classes and with opportunities for mobility from class to class
Parties
Max Weber: the organization of power as a distinct basis for inequality and stratification of individuals who bear varying affiliations and access to organizations holding or seeking power
Proletariat
Karl Marx: those who do not own the means of production in capitalist society and who must, therefore, work for those who do
Social Capital
nature and extensiveness of networks and social relations possessed by individuals
Status Groups
Max Weber: subsets of individuals who share similar lifestyles; who form ties because of shared culture, tastes, and outlooks; and who, by virtue of these, can command a certain honor and prestige
Stratification
structures revolving around the unequal distribution of valued resources to the members of a society and the distinctive categories thereby created by virtue of the shares of resources held by different subpopulations in a society
Symbolic Capital
symbols or ideologies that individuals can mobilize to legitimate their possession on economic, social, and cultural capital
Wealth Distribution
Percentage of total wealth held by different percentages of the population, usually calculated in fifths
Discrimination
differential treatment of others, especially those of an ethnic group or a gender category; so that they receive less valued resources
Ethnic Stratification
situation where members of particular ethnic groups are disproportionately over- and under-represented in particular social classes
Ethnicity
those behavioral, cultural, and organizational characteristics that distinguish subpopulations in a society
Genocide
systematic killing of larger numbers of members of an ethnic subpopulation
Institutionalized Discrimination
patterns of systematic discrimination against an ethnic subpopulation that are legitimated by cultural symbols, that are carried out informally and formally, and that are built into the structures of a society
Prejudice
beliefs about the undesirable qualities of others, especially those in an ethnic group
Race
perceived biological distinctiveness for categories of individuals
Gender/Gender DIfferentiation
process of culturally defining the appropriate positions, roles, and demeanor for men and women
Gender Stratification
situation where the positions typically occupied by men and women habitually receive different levels of valued resources
Sex/Sexual Differentiation
Biological differences between men and women
stratification
structures revolving around the unequal distribution of valued resources to the members of a society, leading to the creation or accentuation of distinctive categories whose members share similar kinds and levels of resources
capital
implements of economic production and the money used to purchase these implements
Commodification
process whereby any object, person, or symbol can be converted into a good that can be bought and sold in a market
Institution of Economy
Organization of technology, capital, and labor into structures for the purpose of gathering natural resources, producing goods and services, and distributing these goods and services to members of a society
Entrepreneurship
organizational forms and capacities that coordinate technology, capital, and labor
Human Capital
another way to designate labor as an element of the economy
Hyperdifferentiation
increasing specialization of all activities into more narrow sets of activities
Hyperrationalization
increasing emphasis on efficiency speed, and cost-benefit concerns
Industrialization
process of harnessing fossil fuels to machines attended by labor for the purpose of gathering resources, producing goods, and distributing commodities
labor
person perfoming economic actibites
Multinational Corporation
company charted for business in one country that does business in other countries
Oligopoly
domination of market sector by a few dominant companies
Post-Industrialization
change from an industrial economy where a majority of the work force is employed in manufacturing of hard goods and commodities to one where the majority of the work force is employed in providing services
Primary Sector
that portion of the economy involved in gathering resources from the environment
Secondary Sector
that portion of the economy devoted to the conversion of raw materials into goods and products (production)
Technology
systems of symbols organized into knowledge about how to manipulate the environment
Tertiary Sector
that portion of the economy involved in providing services
Administrative Base of Power
use of administrative structures to regulate and control members of a population
Coercive Base of Power
use of physical force in social relations
Centralization
concentration of power in the hands of fewer and fewer individuals and agencies in government
Democracy
reliance upon free elections to place incumbents in leadership positions of government
Leaders
those who can use power to make binding decisions on a population and who, as a result, direct societal activities
Material Incentive Base of Power
use of incentives by political leaders to encourage and discourage various lines of conduct among members of a population
Pluralism
argument that decision making in government is influenced by competing interest groups
Power
capacity to direct the behaviors of others
Bases of Power
varying ways that power can be mobilized to direct the behavior of others. 4 types: coercive, administrative, symbolic, and material incentive - all of which are mobilized to varying degrees to exert power
Power Elite
existence of a small group of corporate leaders and wealthy individuals who, in conjunction with key members of the military and the legislative branch of government, disproportionately influence the direction of political decisions
Symbolic Base of POwer
use of symbol systems, such as ideologies, laws, religious dogmas, accounts of history, and other ideas to legitimate the power of leaders to direct behaviors among members of a society
Totalitarianism
governmental from that relies on the extensive use of coercion and the constant monitoring by administrative structures to control members of a population
Avunculocal Rule
residence rule specifying that a married couple and their children are to live with the male's mother's brother (uncle on mother's side)
Bilateral Descent
rule of descent specifying that the male's and female's side of the family and kin network will be given equal importance
Clan
kinship structure created when lineages are linked together by a descent rule
Descent Rules
norms specifying whether the male's or female's side of the family and kin network are more important in terms of authority and property
Endogamy
rule specifying that individuals must marry within another kin group or community
Exogamy
rule specifying that individuals must marry outside a kin group or community
Extended Family Unit
Kinship unit created when several nuclear units are joined in one household
Incest Rules
Norms prohibiting sex and marriage among parents and offspring, and at times other closely related kin
Institution of Kinship
organization of marriage and blood ties among members of a society into structures that, from a sociobiological perspective, allow adults to increase their genetic fitness and that, from a functionalist perspective, have consequences for regularizing sex and mating, providing for biological and social support, socializing the young, and placing the you into adult positions
Lineage
Kinship structure created when several family units are linked together by descent and residence rules
Marriage Rules
Norms specifying who can marry whom in a society, and when
Matrilineal Descent
Rule of descent specifying that the women's side of the family and kin network (especially her male relatives) are to be the most important in terms of property and authority
Matrilocal Rule
Kinship norm specifying that a married couple and their children are to live with the female's family and kin
Moiety
kinship unit created when clans are linked together, diving a society in half into two kinship units
Neolocal Rule
residence rule indicating that a married couple and their children have autonomy in deciding for themselves where they want to live
Nuclear Family
family unit created by the married couple and their offspring
Patriarchy
situation where males control resources and dominate women in family relations and, more broadly, in relations outside the family as well
Patrilineal Descent
Rule of descent specifying that the male's side of the family and kin network are the be the most important in terms of property and authority
Patrilocal Rule
Kinship norm specifying that a married couple and their children are to live with the male's family and kin
Polyandry
marriage rule allowing females to have more than one husband
Polygamy
marriage rules allowing for an individual to have more than one spouse
Polygyny
marriage rule allowing males to have more than one wife
Residence Rules
norms specifying where married couples are to live and reside
Romantic Love Complex
set of beliefs emphasizing mutual attraction and compatibility as the basis for selecting marriage partners
Cult Structure
unit organizing rituals and sustaining religious beliefs and values
pantheon
se of religious beliefs specifying the inhabitants, as well as their relations and life histories, of the supernatural realm
profane
denoting processes in the empirical world, in comparison with the sacred, which is of the supernatural world
Religious Rituals
stereotype sequences of behavior designed to make appeals to the forces of the supernatural realm
Religious Beliefs
conceptions about the nature of the sacred and supernatural as well as the entities and forces in the supernatural realm
Religious Values
conceptions of what is right and wrong, as well as what should exist and occur, that are viewed as emanating from supernatural forces
Sacred
objects and forces having a special quality because they are connected to perceived supernatural powers
Supernatural
realm where gods and unworldly forces operate
Credential Inflation
process whereby education credentials are sought by more and more individuals, with the result that they become less valuable on the labor market, thereby forcing students to acquire more credentials
Home Schooling
social movement in which partents are increasing teaching their children at home under guidelines set by state boards of education
Multiple-Track System
placement of students in different secondary schools depending upon their performance on standardized tests and grades in primary schools
Single Track with Multiple Lane System
placement of students in different lanes or tracks within the same secondary school depending upon their performance on standardized tests and grades
School Vouchers
proposal to allocate to each parent state monies for them to shop around and choose the public or private school that they think is the best for their children
Year-Round Schooling
increasing utilization of school facilities all year long thereby eliminating the traditional summer vacation