Essential Facts for Life Science
Terms in this set (87)
the group that does not receive the manipulated variable and is the group to which the others are
constants of an experiment
are elements that do not change
should be stated in such a way that it identifies the independent variable (what is changed) and the
dependent variable (the response that can be measured because of the change in the independent variable) and the
relationship between. If...then...
multiple trials of an experiment
must be conducted to verify the results
Analysis of observed results includes
construction and interpretation of graphs.
require food, water, air, shelter, energy, and space to survive.
Life functions (processes) of organisms are
growth, response, reproduction, metabolism, and movement.
the smallest units that carry out all of the activities of life in organisms.
The three components of the Cell Theory are:
1) All organisms are made up of one or more cells, 2) Cells are the basic unit
of structure and functions in all organisms, and 3) All cells come from cells that already exist.
Cells perform numerous functions and processes including
respiration, waste removal, growth, irritability, and reproduction.
Cells that have the same goal
group together to form tissues; tissues that have the same goal group together to form
organs; organs with the similar goals group to work in an organ system.
The differences between plant cells and animal cells are:
plant cells have chloroplasts, cell walls, and larger vacuoles, and
animal cells have centrioles during mitosis
The cell membrane
forms the outer boundary of the cell and only allows certain things to enter and exit the cell
directs all of the activities of the cell and contains all of the genetic blueprints for the operations of the cell.
the gel-like material inside the cell membrane and outside of the nucleus.
acts as the highway system of the cell and moves materials around the cell.
cell packages materials to be moved to the outside of the cell.
the powerhouse of the cell that breaks down food molecules and produces energy for the
digest and destroy waste products and worn-out cell parts
make proteins for the cell and are attached to the (rough) endoplasmic reticulum
organelles in plant cells that transform light energy into chemical energy in the form of sugar (glucose).
only found in plant cells outside of the cell membrane, is to support and protect the cell.
temporary storage units for the cells that may contain food, water, or waste.
the net movement of molecules from an area where there are many to an area where there are few
the diffusion of water through a cell membrane
the process in which the nucleus of a cell divides and replicates to form two identical nuclei in a series of 5
phases: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
the process of division in cells that produces sex cells.
organisms are made of only one cell
organisms are made of many cells.
Multicellular organisms are
complex in that there is a division of labor for carrying out the necessary life processes.
The life needs of plants are
light, energy source, water, gases, and nutrients.
The life needs of animals are
food, water, gases, shelter, and space.
In the plant and animal world, organisms are arranged into
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
Science nomenclature is the
system used for classifying organisms.
a chemical in chloroplast that can absorb or trap energy
a necessary life process that transforms light energy into chemical energy
a series of chemical reactions in which light is used to change raw materials (CO2 + H20) into
products (sugar and oxygen)
In plants, energy in stored in
the chemical bonds of glucose molecules
critical to producers
Producers are the
foundation of food webs.
Energy passes through
an ecosystem as one organism eats another and is in turn eaten
Energy movement through an ecosystem can be
modeled through simple food chains or the more complex food webs.
Materials are recycled by
An energy pyramid models
the amount of energy available to each successive trophic level.
The amount of energy in each trophic level...
decreases (producer, first order consumer, second order consumer, third
social order to ensure that labor and resources are shared.
Independent behavior and group behavior can....
influence a population.
Establishment of a territory ensures...
that members of a population have adequate habitat to provide for basic resources.
Energy resources within a community are
shared through the interactions of producers, consumers, and decomposers.
Predator prey is an interaction between...
a consumer that hunts for another consumer for food.
Populations of one species may...
compete with populations of another species for resources.
Symbiotic relationships can exist between ...
two or more species when they live and work together.
Symbiotic relationships include
mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
Mutualism is when
both organisms benefit from the relationship.
Commensalism is when
one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
Parasitism is when
one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
Every organism fills
a specific niche or role in its community.
Examples of ecosystems are
forests, tidal pools, and ponds
Ecosystems, living community, and their physical environment
are functional units with the biome.
Conditions in a biome include
climate range and how organisms have adapted.
. Biomes are
smaller divisions of ecosystems
Organisms have specific....
structures, functions, and behaviors that enable them to survive the conditions of a particular
Organisms adapt to
abiotic and biotic factors in their biome.
Communities, with the physical environment,
Changes in seasons can affect
organisms over time
Plants respond to light by
growing toward it or away from it (phototropism).
Animals respond to cold conditions with a period of
lowered metabolism (hibernation).
Organisms may respond to adverse conditions with a period
of lower or suspended metabolism (dormancy)
Examples of large-scale changes are changes in:
climate, catastrophic events such as fire, drought, flood, and earthquakes.
(eutrophication: addition of nutrients)
Human interaction can directly alter
habitat size, quality of resources, and structure in a habitat
Human input can disturb
the balance of populations.
Human interaction can lead to
concerns for the ecosystem's health in the areas of water supply, air quality, energy
product, and waste management.
DNA is a
double helix molecule.
DNA is a molecule that includes
four different components. The arrangement of these four components within the double
helix forms a chemical code.
strands of DNA.
Genes are sections of a chromosome that carry
the code for a particular trait.
The basic laws of Mendelian genetics can explain the transmission of
some traits that can be inherited from generation to
Genetic engineering manipulates
the genetic code to obtain a desired product
Genetic engineering has numerous
practical applications in medicine, agriculture, and biology.
The mechanisms through which evolution takes place are
a related set of processes that include mutation, adaptation,
natural selection, and extinction.
inheritable changes because a mutation is a change in the DNA code
structures, functions, or behaviors that enable a species to survive.
A mutation may result in a
favorable change or adaptation in genetic information that improves a species' ability to exist in
its environment or a mutation may result in an unfavorable change that does not improve or impedes a species' ability to
exist in its environment.
Individuals of a population exhibit a range of variations in a trait as a result of
the variations in their genetic codes
The evidence for evolution is drawn from
data including the fossil record, radiometric dating, genetic information, the
distribution or organisms, and anatomical and developmental similarities across species.
Natural selection is the
survival and reproduction of the individuals in a population that exhibit the traits that best enable
them to survive in their environment.
If a species does not include traits that enable them to survive in its environment, or to survive changes in the
the species may become extinct