35 terms

Team Quest Geology Terms

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Constructive force
a force that builds up mountains and landmasses on Earth's surface
Destructive force
a force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the surface of Earth
Seismic Waves
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
Pressure
the force pushing on a surface or area
Crust
the thin and solid outermost composition layer of the Earth above the mantle
Basalt
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
Granite
A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
Mantle
the composition layer of the earth between the crust and the core; it makes up 67% of Earth's mass.
Lithosphere
the solid part of the earth's physical layers consisting of the crust and outer mantle
Asthenosphere
the soft physical layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
Mesosphere
The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
Inner Core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
Outer Core
the liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Core
Heat Transfer
the movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object
Radiation
the transfer of heat energy through space
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
Convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid (gas or liquid)
Density
the amount of matter in a given space
Convection Currents
circular movement of a substance due to changes in temperature and density; found in Earth's asthenosphere.
Igneous Rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Sedimentary Rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
Sediment
matter deposited by some natural process
Erosion
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
Deposition
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
Compaction
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
Cementation
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
Rock Cycle
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
Relative Age
the age of a rock compared to the ages of rock layers
Absolute Age
the age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed
:Law of Superposition
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
Intrusion
An igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
Extrusion
an igneous rock layer formed when lava flows onto Earth's surface and hardens
Index Fossil
fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during only one short period
Unconformity
a break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time