116 terms

Tech Term Final

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How do you know it's a mineral?
(must answer YES to all of these to qualify as a mineral)
• Is it solid?
• Does it have a crystalline structure?
• Is it nonliving?
• Is it made in nature?
density
The measure of how much matter is in a given amount of space
renewable resources
Resources that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resources are consumed (water)
nonrenewable resources
Resources that form at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which they are consumed (coal)
rock cycle
The continual process by which new rock forms from old rock material
intrusive igneous rock
Forms when magma "intrudes" or pushes into surrounding rock UNDER the surface of the earth (coarse-grained, cooled slowly)
extrusive igneous rock
Forms when magma "exits" or erupts onto Earth's surface (fine-grained, cooled quickly, few to no mineral crystals)
sedimentary rocks
Rocks formed by the WEDCC processes (classified by the way they form)
weathering
The breaking down of rock into smaller pieces called sediment
erosion
The carrying away of the tiny pieces of rock/sediment
clastic rocks
Form when rock fragments cement together by a mineral such as quartz or calcite (conglomerate)
chemical rocks
Form when a solution (liquid) has enough dissolved material that crystallize forming minerals
(halite)
organic rocks
Form from the remains of plants and animals
(coal)
metamorphic rocks
Rocks in which have changed due to heat, pressure, or a combo of both
contact metamorphism
Occurs when magma moves through the mantle and heats the surrounding rock and changes it (an igneous intrusion)
regional metamorphism
Rocks that experience change caused by pressure deep below or collision with other rock formations
mechanical weathering (physical)
The process in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces (ice, abrasion, wind, water, gravity, plants, and animals)
abrasion
The grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity
ice wedging
A type of frost action (weathering from ice) occurs when wedges of ice in rock widen and deepen the existing cracks
chemical weathering
The process in which rock is chemically broken down into smaller pieces (water, acids in groundwater, acids in living things, air)
differential weathering
The process in which softer, less weather resistant rocks (limestone) wear away leaving harder more weather resistant rocks (granite) behind
weathering & climate
Chemical weathering occurs faster in warmer climates, water increases the rate of mechanical weathering, and ice wedging occurs in climates with varying temperatures
weathering & elevation
Higher elevations are exposed to more ice, water, and wind, and steep slopes cause rainwater to flow quickly over them
soil horizon
Layers of soil that differ in color and texture from the layers above and below
humus (the organic stuff of soil)
Dark, organic material formed in soil from the decayed remains of plants and animals - gives soil its nutrients
inorganic stuff of soil
Sand, silt, and clay which along with the organic stuff, makes soil
tropical rain forest climate
Tons of rain, humid/warm, thin topsoil, nutrient poor
desert climate
Little rain, less soil creation, salt creates toxic soil
temperate forest & grassland climate
Lots of rain, temp changes lead to frost action, thick fertile soil
arctic climate
Little rain, freezing temps prevent decomposition, soil is thin and lacks nutrients
soil conservation
A method to maintain the fertility of the soil by protecting it from erosion and nutrient loss
land degradation
(desertification)
Soil is damaged (loses nutrients and/or becomes infertile) from overuse by poor farming techniques or by overgrazing
contour plowing
Plowing across the slope of hills preventing erosion from heavy rains
terracing
Creates smaller, flatter fields on very steep hills, preventing erosion from heavy rains
no-till farming
Practice of leaving old stalks in the soil, to prevent soil erosion
cover crops
Crops that are planted in between harvests to replace certain nutrients and prevent erosion
crop rotation
Rotating crops to restore nutrients to the soils
gradient
The change in elevation of a stream or river over a certain distance (bigger gradient gives the water more erosive energy)
discharge
The amount of water that a stream or river carries (The more discharge the greater the erosive energy and the amount of materials which can be carried)
load
The materials carried by a stream or river
delta
A fan-shaped pattern created from a river's current slowing and depositing into a large body of water
alluvial fan
A fan-shaped deposit created when a fast-moving mountain stream flows onto a flat plain (dry land)
flood plain
The area along a river that forms from the deposition of sediment that occurs when a river overflows its banks
mass movement
The movement of any material (rock, soil, or snow) downslope. Mass movement can happen rapidly or slowly
creep
The extremely slow downhill movements of material down a slope
lithosphere
Crust + the rigid upper mantle
asthenosphere
Portion of the upper mantle where the convection currents occur
outer core
Layer of molten liquid metal (iron and nickel)
inner core
Dense ball of solid metal (iron and nickel) that is the densest layer of Earth
convection current
Created when there are differences in temperatures and densities within fluids (liquid or gas)
continental drift
Theory that continents were once Pangaea and slowly moved over Earth's surface (based on three types of evidence)
fossil
Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock
mid-ocean ridge
Longest chain of divergent boundary mountains, that extends into all of Earth's oceans
sea floor spreading
Process that adds new material to the ocean floor at the mid-ocean ridge
plate tectonics
Theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion, driven by convection currents
faults
Breaks in Earth's crust where plate boundaries form
convergent boundary
Collision between two plates caused by compression
compression
Force (stress) which occurs at reverse faults (convergent boundaries)
divergent boundary
Division between two plates caused by tension
tension
Force (stress) which occurs at normal faults (divergent boundaries)
rift valley
Created on land at divergent boundaries
transform boundary
Sliding plates (in opposite directions) caused by shearing
shearing
Force (stress) which occurs at strike-slip faults
(transform boundaries)
subduction
When the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and gets swallowed by the mantle
epicenter
The point on the Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's starting point
focus
The point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins (on a fault)
water cycle
Continuous movement of water through the crust, ocean, and atmosphere
evaporation
Energy from the sun causes the liquid water in the oceans and on Earth's surface to gain energy and turn into a gas
transpiration
Process by which plants release water vapor (gas) into the air through their leaves
condensation
Occurs when water vapor (gas) cools or loses energy and changes into water droplets that form clouds/fog/dew
precipitation
Solid or liquid water that falls back to Earth's surface from clouds
surface currents
Controlled by 4 factors:
-global winds
-coriolis effect
-continental deflections
-water temperature
deep currents
Controlled by 3 factors:
-falling temperatures
-rising salinity due to freezing (N & S poles)
-rising salinity due to evaporation (equator)
spring tide
Occur during the new and full moon and have very large tidal ranges (high tide is really high on the beach/low tide is really low on the beach)
neap tide
Occur during the 1st and 3rd quarter moon and have a more "neat" tidal range (high and low tide are close where they arrive on the beach)
conduction
Transfer of thermal energy through direct contact
convection
Transfer of energy by the circulation/movement of a liquid or gas
radiation
The way earth receives its energy! Transfer by waves
global winds
Winds that are produced from air moving from poles to the equator and are influenced by the Coriolis effect (westerlies, trade winds, doldrums)
local winds
Winds that blow over short distances (at the ocean, in the mountains)
sea breeze
During the day, air comes from the sea and replaces warmer, less dense (L pressure) air over sand
land breeze
At night, air comes from the land and replaces warmer, less dense (L pressure) air over water
valley breeze
During the day, the sun warms the air along the mountain slope, so this warmer, less dense air rises and the valley air takes its place
mountain breeze
At night, the air along the mountain slope cools, thus this cooler, denser air moves down the slopes from the mountain
maritime air mass
Forms over water/wet
continental air mass
Forms over land/dry
polar air mass
Forms over cold regions/cold
tropical air mass
Forms over tropics/warm
wind
Occurs when air moves from high (H) to low (L) pressure
cyclone
Areas of low (L) pressure...think...another name for tornado
anticyclone
Areas of high (H) pressure
cold front
When cold air meets warm air and the result is thunderstorms and heavy rains (warm air is pushed up)
warm front
When warm air meets cold air and the result is drizzly rain (warm air moves over colder denser air)
stationary front
When cold air meets warm air and neither have enough force to push the other out of the way (brings many days of cloudy, wet weather)
tornado
AKA....cyclone...small spinning column of air that touches earth's surface, has extremely high wind speeds and L pressure (funnel cloud)
hurricane
Large, rotating tropical weather system that forms (those that affect the US) by the trade winds blowing across Africa into the Atlantic Ocean
weather
The condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
climate
The average weather condition in an area over a long period of time
seasons
Caused by the tilt of the earth on its axis
windward side of a mountain
Green/lush side...mountains force air to rise which cools the air and forces it to release moisture in the form of snow or rain
leeward side of a mountain
Dry/desert like
geocentric
Earth-centered model of the universe
heliocentric
Sun-centered model of the universe
big bang theory
The theory that 13.7 billion years ago, the universe began with a tremendous explosion
rotation
The spinning of an object around its axis
revolution
The movement of an object all the way around another object (verb)
orbit
The path that an object follows around another (noun)
solar eclipse
Occurs when the moon comes between the Earth and the sun (Helpful remember tip): "Solar panels are new...not everyone has them" so a solar eclipse happens during a NEW moon
lunar eclipse
Occurs when the earth comes between the sun and the moon
comet
Dirty snowball that has an elongated (elliptical shaped) orbit and gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail
asteroid
Small, rocky body that orbits the Sun in the asteroid belt (between Mars and Jupiter)
meteoroid
Probably a piece of an asteroid...location - space
meteor
Bright streak of light from a meteoroid/comet dust that is burning up in the mesosphere
meteorite
A meteoroid that has made it to earth's surface
umbra
The darkest part of the moon's shadow (this is the area that creates a total eclipse)
penumbra
Less dark than the umbra and the larger part of the shadow (this area creates a partial eclipse)