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36 terms

Bio 104

Chapter 33 study guide
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Herbaceous Plants
nonwoody. In temperate climates, the aerial parts (stems and leaves) of herbaceous plants die back to the ground at the end of the growing season.
What is the function of lignin?
strengthening polymer made up of monomers derived from certain amino acids.
Define and give and example of an Annual
Annuals are herbaceous plants (such as corn, geranium and marigold) that grow, reproduce, and die in one year or less.
Define and give an example of a Biennual.
take 2 years to complete theirt life cycles before dying. Examples include: carrot, Queen Anne's lace, cabbage, and foxglove
Define and give an example of a Perennial
herbaceous and woody plants that have the potential to live for more than 2 years. In temperate climates, the aerial stems of herbaceous plants such as iris, rhubarb, onion, and asparagus die back each winter.
Dormancy
an organism reduces it metabolic state to a minimum level to survive unfavorable conditions.
Deciduous Plant
shed their leaves before winter and produce new stems with new leaves the following spring
Evergreen Plant
shed their leaves over a long period of time, so some leaves are always present.
Root System
the underground portion of a plant that anchors it in the soil and absorbs water and dissolved minerals.
Shoot System
the above ground portion of a plant, such as stem and leaves
What is the function of Ground Tissue?
photosynthesis, storage, and support
What is the function of the vascular tissue?
strengthens and supports the plant
What is the function of the Dermal Tissue
provides a covering for the plant body
What is the function of Parenchyma Tissue?
storage, secretion and photosynthesis
What is the function of Collenchymas Tissue?
Provides much of the support in soft, nonwoody plant organs.
What is the function of Sclerenchyma Tissue
provides strength and support in the plant body
What is the function of Sclereids?
They are small bundles of sclerenchyma tissue in plants that form durable layers.
What is the function of Fibers?
support the plant
Cellulose
structural polysaccharide consisting of beta glucose subunits; the main constituent of plant primary cell walls
Pectin
another cementing polysaccharide that is less variable in its monomer composition then the hemicelluloses.
What is the function of Xylem?
conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the stems and leaves and provides structural support.
What is the function of Phloem?
conducts food materials, that is, carbs formed in photosynthesis throughout the plant and provides structural support
Epidermis
complex tissue composed primarily of relatively unspecialized living cells.
Cuticle
a noncell, waxy convering over the epidermis of the aerial parts of plants that reduce water loss.
Stomata
small pores located in the epidermis of plants that provide for gas exchange for photosynthesis; each stoma is flanked by 2 guard cells, which are responsible for its opening and closing
Guard Cell
one of a pair of epidermal cells that adjust their shape to form a stomatal pore for gas exchange.
Periderm
tissue that can be anywhere from several to many layers thick, forms under the epidermis to provide a new protective covering as the epidermis is destroyed
Cork Cell
a cell in the bark that is produced outwardly by the cork cambium; cork cells are dead at maturity and function for protection and reduction of water loss
Cork Parenchyma
one or more layers of parenchyma cells produced inwardly by the cork cambium
Describe Meristematic Cells
also known as stem cells. A relatively undiffrentiated cell capable of repeated cell division. At each divison, at least one of the daughter cells usually remains a stem cell, wheras the other may differentiate as a specific cell type
Primary Growth
an increase in the length of a plant that occurs at the tips of the shoots and roots due to the activity of apical meristems
Secondary Growth
an increase in the girth of a plant due to the activity of the vascular cambium, this kind of growth results in the production of secondary tissue ex). wood and bark
Apical meristems
areas of dividing tissue, located at the tip of a shoot or root that gives rise to primary tissues; cause an increase in the length of the plant body.
Lateral Meristems
areas extending along the entire length of the stems and roots
Cork Cambium
located on the outer bark, composed of a thin cylinder or irregular arrangement of meristematic cells
Bark
the outer most covering over woody stems and roots, consists of all plant tissues located outside the vascular cambium.