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Chapter 39; The reproductive system
Terms in this set (51)
decrease in gonadal function in males, associated with advancing age, analogous to female menopause
remains of a follicle that releases mature ovum at ovulation; becomes an endocrine gland producing estrogen and progesterone
hormone produced by the ovary, placenta, and adrenal gland; stimulates development of female characteristics and prepares the body for pregnancy
storage site of each ovum in the ovary; allows the ovum to grow and develop; produces estrogen and progesteron
estrogen-like substance produced by seminiferous tubules during sperm production; acts as a negative feedback stimulus to decrease release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
interstitial or Leydig cells
part of the testes that produce testosterone in response to stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH)
the onset of the menstrual cycle
depletion of the female ova; results in lack of estrogen and progesterone
cycling of female sex hormones in interaction with the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary feedback systems
expulsion of the uterine lining occurring approximately every 28 to 32 days
eggs; the female gamete; contain half of the information needed in a human nucleus
female sexual glands that store ova and produce estrogen and progesterone
release of the ovum from the follicle into the abdomen
hormone produced by the ovary, placenta, and adrenal gland; promotes maintenance of pregnancy
point at which the hypothalamus starts releasing gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) to stimulate the release of FSH and LH and begin sexual development
part of the testes that produce sperm in response to stimulation by FSH
male gamete; contains half of the information needed for a human cell nucleus
male sexual glands that produce sperm and testosterone
male sex hormone; produced by the interstitial or Leydig cells of the testes
the womb; site of growth and development of the embryo and fetus
Both male and female glands respond to what two hormones?
FSH & LH
FSH & LH are released from where?
The anterior pituitary
What causes the anterior pituitary to release FSH & LH?
GnRH is released from the hypothalamus.
What are the steps of Ovulation?
GnRH->LH & FSH-> stimulates follicles-> produces progestrone & estrogen-> causes high estrogen-> causes LH surge->Follicle bursts & releases ovum (ovulation)
Steps when the ovum does not get fertilized?
Ruptured follicle (ovulation)-> becomes corpus luteum (yellow)-> shrinks to become corpus albicans (scar tissue)->estrogen and progestrone is no longer being produced which triggers GnRH starting over the cycle.
corpus luteum produces estrogen and progestrone for 10-14 days unless pregnancy occurs
Steps when ovum does get fertilized?
Ovum gets fertilized-> Rapidly divide (produces embryo)->implants in uterine wall -> placenta develops -> Estrogen and progestrone maintained to support fetus->fetus develops->Oxytocin is released to stimulate uterine contractions
How long does it take for hormones to be reversed after birth?
The hormones produced during pregnancy cause their effect by....
entering the cell, not by reacting with a receptor site on the cell membrane.
During menopause the hypothalamus and pituitary produce what in an attempt to stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen & Progestrone?
GnRH, LH, & FSH
The hormone levels will fall back within a normal range once they realize the ovaries will not produce the estrogen & progestrone
Menopause is associated with.....
Retention of calcium in the bones, lowered serum lipid levels, and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics.
What are the effects of estrogen
Growth of genitalia
growth of breast tissue
Characteristic female pubic hair distribution
Stimulation of protein building
Increased total blood cholesterol
Retention of sodium and water
inhibition of calcium resorption from the bones
Alteration of pelvic bone structure to a wider and flaring pelvis
Closure of epiphyses
Increased thyroid hormone globulin
Increased elastic tissue of the skin
Increased vascularity of the skin
Increased uterine motility
Thin, clear cervical mucous
Proliferation of endometrium
Anti-insulin effect with increased glucose levels
What are the effects of progestrone?
Decreased uterine motility
Development of secretory endometrium
Thickened cervical mucus
Increased body temp
Depressed T-cell function
True or False:
the male reproductive system originates from the same fetal cells as in the female.
What type of glands are the testes?
What are the two parts the testes are made up of?
Seminiferous tubules, & the interstitial or Leydig Cells
What produces sperm?
The seminiferous tubules
What produces the hormone testosterone?
The interstitial or Leydig cells
stores produced sperm, and carries it from the testes to be ejaculated
The Prostate gland
Produces enzymes to stimulate sperm maturation, as well as lubricating fluid
Includes both corpora cavernosa, and a corpus spongiosum.
through which both sperm and urine are delivered.
How does testosterone produce its effects?
it enters the cell and reacts with a cytoplasmic receptor site to influence mRNA activity, resulting in the production of proteins for cell structure or function.
Once puberty and the physical changes brought about by testosterone have occurred, what sustains the male charcteristics?
The androgens released by the adrenal glands are sufficient to sustain the male characteristics.
What does FSH stimulate in the male reproductive system?
Seminiferous tubules, in a process called Spermatogenesis.
Also stimulates the sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules to produce estrogen
Sertoli cells produce a substance called
inhibin, an estrogen like molecule
LH in male reproduction can also be called
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
The LH or ICSH in male reproduction stimulates what
the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
During andropause the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary produce what hormones to attempt to stimulate the testes.
GnRH, LH, & FSH
What are the effects of testosterone
Growth of the male and sexual accessory organs
Growth of the testes and scrotal sac
Thickening if vocal cords
Hair growth on the face, body, arms, legs, & trunk
Male pattern baldness
Increased protein anabolism and decreased protein catabolism
Increased bone growth in length and width
Thickening of the cartilage and skin
What two animals are known to be sexually stimulated and responsive at will....
Ferrets and humans
What are the four phases of human sexual response
A period of stimulation
A plateau stage
a period of recovery of resolution
This set is often in folders with...
Roberts chapter 39-3, 39-4
Function of Female reproductive System
biology chapter 9 review
Chapter 27 - Reproduction (Female)
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