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Fundamentals of Nursing, ch. 28 Medications
Terms in this set (70)
Process by which drugs are transferred from the site of entry into the body to the bloodstream.
Adverse drug effect
Undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effect of a drug.
Immune system response that occurs when the body interprets an administered drug as a foreign substance and forms antibodies against the drug.
Glass flask containing a single dose of medication for parenteral administration. Use a filter needle to prevent glass shards from being administered.
Severe reaction occurring immediately after exposure to a drug; characterized by respiratory distress and vascular collapse. Treated with vasopressors, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and antihistamines.
Combined effect of two or more drugs that produces less than the effect of each drug alone.
Condition that occurs when the body cannot metabolize a drug before additional doses are administered. Most common in the elderly.
Movement of drugs by the circulatory system to the site of action.
Tendency of the body to become accustomed to a drug over time; larger doses are required to produce the desired effects.
Study of the effect of ethnicity on responses to prescribed medication, especially drug absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion.
The removal of a drug from the body.
Name assigned by the manufacturer who first develops a drug; it is often derived from the chemical name.
The amount of time it takes for half a dose of a drug to be eliminated from the body.
Unusual, unexpected response to a drug that may manifest itself by overresponse or underresponse. Believed to be due to genetic enzyme deficiencies.
(1) act of breathing in; synonym for inspiration; (2) administration of a drug in solution via the respiratory tract.
Injection placed right below the epidermis. Longest absorption time of all the parenteral routes, therefore used for sensitive tests. Ie, PPD and anesthesia.
An injection into deep muscle tissue, usually of the buttock, thigh, or upper arm. Ie, antibiotics, hormones, and vaccines, such as the pneumococcal and hepatitis vaccines.
Injection of a solution into a vein.
Any process that ensures that the medications given to and taken by the patient are the same as those prescribed by the health care provider.
(1) chemical changes in the body by which energy is provided; (2) breakdown of a drug to an inactive form; also referred to as biotransformation.
Battery-operated pump for intermittent infusion allowing medication mixed in a syringe to be connected to the primary line and delivered by mechanical pressure applied to the syringe plunger.
Name by which a drug is identified in official publications.
Outside of intestines or alimentary canal; popularly used to refer to injection routes.
Highest plasma concentration of a drug.
Process by which drugs alter cell physiology and affect the body.
Movement of drug molecules in the body in relation to the drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
The study of actions of chemicals on living organisms.
The clinical purpose of administering a drug.
Piggyback delivery system
Latin word meaning, "I shall please"; an inactive substance that gives satisfaction to the person using it.
"as needed" order for medications.
Single order carried out immediately.
Injection into the subcutaneous tissue that lies between the epidermis and the muscle. Do not aspirate after injection. Ie, insulin
Combined effect of two or more drugs is greater than the effect of each drug alone.
Known to have potential to cause developmental defects in the embryo or fetus.
That concentration of drug in the blood serum that produces the desired effect without causing toxicity.
Application of a substance directly to a body surface.
Specific groups of symptoms related to drug therapy that carry risk for permanent damage or death.
Drug name selected and trademarked by the company marketing the drug; also called brand name or proprietary name.
The point when a drug is at its lowest concentration.
Glass bottle with self-sealing stopper through which medication is removed; may be single or multiple dose.
Volume-control administration set
Intermittent intravenous medication infusion diluted with a small amount of solution.
Technique used to administer medications intramuscularly that ensures that the medication does not leak back along the needle track and into the subcutaneous tissue, reducing pain and discomfort.
Drug classifications/ classes
Groups of drugs that share similar characteristics. May be classified by body system, chemical composition, or therapeutic action.
Medication mixed with alcohol, oil, or soap, which is rubbed on the skin.
Cell membranes have a fatty acid layer. A drug that is more lipid soluble can be absorbed more readily and pass more easily through the cell membrane.
Hepatic first pass
Some drugs move from the intestinal lumen to the liver by way of the portal vein and do not go directly into the systemic circulation following oral absorption. Ie, Warfin or Lidocaine.
Adverse side effect: Iatrogenic disorders
Ie neutropenia caused by chemotherapy.
Less effective in African-Americans. Thiazide diuretics however seem to be more effective in the AA population.
Rubbing the drug into the skin.
Placing drug into direct contact with mucous membrane
Flushing mucous membrane with the drug in the solution.
Having the patient inhale the drug.
Provides for safe prescribing.
Bar code-enabled medication administration. The nurse scans his or her own ID, the patient's ID, and each package of medication to be administered.
Check whether the prescribed amount is per dose or per 24-hour period.
Three check of drug administration
1.When the nurse reaches for the unit dose package or container.
2. After retrieval from the drawer and compared with the CMAR/MAR, or compared with the CMAR/MAR immediately before pouring from a multi-dose container
3. Before giving the unit dose medication to the patient, or when replacing the multi-dose container in the drawer or shelf.
(1) right medication
(2) right patient
(3) right dosage
(4) right route
(5) right time
(6) right reason
(7) right (appropriate) assessment data
(8) right documentation and monitoring (after administration)
(9) right response by the patient (after administration)
(10) the right to education
(11) the right to refuse
The larger the gauge of a needle, the smaller the diameter.
Are only good for 24 hours.
Eject excess air.
Do not eject excess air. Ie, Lovenox.
Mixing meds in one syringe
When using a single-dose vial and a multidose vial, inject air into both vials and draw the medication in the multidose vial into the syringe first. This prevents the contents of the multidose vial from being contaminated with the medication in the single-dose vial.
Adding liquid/diluent to a powder.
Biologic agents and medications in aqueous solutions
20 to 25 gauge needle.
Partial thromboplastin time. Effected by heparin.
1.3-2.0. Warfarin therapy.
If a medication clogs a gastric tube:
Attempt to dislodge the medication with a 10 mL syringe.
A patient requires 40 units of NPH insulin and 10 units of regular insulin daily subcutaneously. What is the correct sequence when mixing insulins?
Inject air into the NPH insulin vial, being careful not to allow the solution to touch the needle; next, inject air into the regular insulin vial and withdraw 10 units; then, withdraw 40 units of NPH insulin.
Do not aspirate or massage.
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